Speed ​​Dating Leicester Square

What Does The BlackPill Mean?

2018.08.18 04:01 Lubricatedolphin What Does The BlackPill Mean?

The BlackPill Truths
The blackpill is the uniting truth among incels that proves without a doubt that the world is unfairly set up against us, both socially and sexually. When was the last time a handsome tall white man struggled to make friends or go very long without a successful relationship? How often is it that a short socially awkward Asian boy is bullied relentlessly in school, and starved from the proper social development that regular people will have for most of their entire lives? Appearance has a much more powerful effect on the course of an individual’s life than most people are willing to admit. Chiefly, people who are recognized to be more attractive are privileged by the Halo effect. They are immediate recognized as nicer more approachable people. And they are thus, much much more likely to receive positive social contact from peers their age. “The halo effect specifically refers to when this behavior has a positive correlation, such as viewing someone who is attractive as likely to be successful and popular”
📷
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halo_effect
https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/92158/TheHaloEffect.pdf

The 20% to 80% Rule

One debated result of the sexual revolution is that Men and Women have the same number of sexual encounters, and that men and women of any level of attractiveness will be able to find a sexual partner of a similar level of attractiveness. But this is simply a purported, parroted platitude. There is no correlation between the attractiveness of men and women having the same sexual expeircenes, instead the data points to a strong conclusion that the top 20% of males rated highest in attractiveness are having sexual encounters, and positive social relationships with about 80% of the women of the world. Meaning that if you are a male of average, or below average looks it is significantly harder to find positive social and sexual relationships than a woman of the same level of perceived attractiveness.
NOTE: Average number of sexual partners is an oft used statistic. The main problem with that is that average doesn't mean much since outliers can adversely affect the usefulness of an average. The sources for averages are often pretty sketchy as well. "surveys" in magazines and such. Nothing that evokes much confidence.
https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nsfg/key_statistics/n.htm
https://therationalmale.com/tag/8020-rule/
📷
📷📷📷📷

Women’s height preference in a partner

Barkow, J.H., Cosmides, L. and Tooby, J. eds., 1995. The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. Oxford University Press, USA.
"Taller men are more sought after in women's personal advertisements (Cameron, Oskamp, & Sparks, 1978), receive more responses to their own personal advertisements (Lynn & Shurgot, 1984), and tend to have prettier girlfriends (Feingold, 1982) than do shorter men. ... Gillis and Avis (1980) and Beigel (1954) found that females preferred males who were taller by 6 in. and 6.7 in., respectively ..."
Nettle, D., 2002. Height and reproductive success in a cohort of British men. Human Nature, 13(4), pp.473-491.
"Taller men were significantly less likely to be childless than shorter men."
"The results show that taller men were more successful at attracting longterm mates. They were less likely to have had no long-term partner, and more likely to have had more than one, than their shorter peers."
"Tall men's greater number of partners seems to be a direct consequence of their stature increasing their ability to attract a partner. This confirms the now-abundant finding that women find taller men attractive (Feingold 1982; Gillis and Avis 1980; Hensley 1994; Jackson and Ervin 1992; Shepperd and Strathman 1989)."
" The optimum height for a man, from the present data, appears to lie about 80% of the way along the distribution, or 6 feet tall."
Romantic Height Preferences in Men and women
http://research.similarminds.com/romantic-height-preferences-in-men-and-women/227
"the average mean height preference difference of all women was 7.94in taller, the overall ideal range was 5.3in taller to 10.4in taller"
"Average height women - avg height 5ft 5in - prefer a range of 5ft 9in to 6ft 2in - mean preference of the group 5ft 11.5in"
"In a study by Gillis and Avis (1980) only 2 couples out of 720 consisted of a pair in which the man was shorter than the woman. In a study by Hensley (1994) women most preferred a man who was 72 inches (6ft) tall. In a study by Cameron (1978), 100 percent of the women advertised the desire to date a man who was 4 inches taller than themselves."
Stulp, G., Buunk, A.P. and Pollet, T.V., 2013. Women want taller men more than men want shorter women. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(8), pp.877-883.
"the optimum of the curve for women was a partner that was 20.93 cm taller. Thus, men were most satisfied when their partner was slightly shorter than themselves, whereas women were most satisfied when their partner was much taller than themselves. Partner height differences were more important in explaining partner height satisfaction in women than in men, accounting for more than four times as much of the explained variance (13.4% versus 2.9%; Table 2; ESM Table 7)."
"Your just mad because you're short! Stop being so self-defeatin-"
"The finding that shorter men were least satisfied with their height can be understood from our findings on mate preferences: women preferred greater height differences and were most satisfied with their partner’s height when he was tall. The increased satisfaction with their own height among taller men is also in line with studies indicating that tall men have higher self-esteem (Judge & Cable, 2004), display less jealousy towards other men (Buunk et al., 2008), and display higher levels of subjective well-being (Carrieri & De Paola, 2012)."
https://imgur.com/a/HpvbE
http://archive.is/R8RMs
http://archive.is/2uDZj

📷

Physical Attractiveness is the Strongest Predictor of Initial Romantic Interest in Both Sexes; No Evidence Male Personality Plays Any Role for Women (Luo & Zhang, 2009)

Further support that Rules 1 & 2 do indeed narrowly refer to physical attractiveness, despite suggestions to the contrary.
Abstract link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19558447
J Pers. 2009 Aug;77(4):933-64. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00570.x. Epub 2009 May 18.
What leads to romantic attraction: similarity, reciprocity, security, or beauty? Evidence from a speed-dating study.
Luo S, Zhang G.
Department of Psychology, Social Behavioral Science Building, University of North Carolina at Wilmington, Wilmington, NC 28403, USA.
Abstract
“Years of attraction research have established several "principles" of attraction with robust evidence. However, a major limitation of previous attraction studies is that they have almost exclusively relied on well-controlled experiments, which are often criticized for lacking ecological validity. The current research was designed to examine initial attraction in a real-life setting-speed-dating. Social Relations Model analyses demonstrated that initial attraction was a function of the actor, the partner, and the unique dyadic relationship between these two. Meta-analyses showed intriguing sex differences and similarities. Self characteristics better predicted women's attraction than they did for men, whereas partner characteristics predicted men's attraction far better than they did for women. The strongest predictor of attraction for both sexes was partners' physical attractiveness. Finally, there was some support for the reciprocity principle but no evidence for the similarity principle.”
PMID: 19558447 DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00570.x
Find full-text via sci-hub (see sidebar).
MAJOR FINDINGS
MALE ATTRIBUTES THAT PREDICTED A WOMAN'S ROMANTIC INTEREST
Physical attractiveness (rs = 0.88, p<0.01)
Sport/Exercise involvement or interest (rs = 0.48, p<0.01)
THINGS THAT DIDN'T
Big Five Personality Traits
Affect
Attachment Style
Self-esteem
Political leanings
Values
Social interest
Similarity
Full comment on this finding by the authors:
It is remarkable that the strongest predictor of initial attraction in a speed-dating context was partner’s physical attractiveness, and, most importantly, men and women showed an extremely similar pattern. This finding was highly consistent with the results reported in several other speed-dating studies we mentioned earlier (Eastwick & Finkel, 2008; Fisman et al., 2006; Kurzban & Weeden, 2005, 2008; Todd et “al., 2007). It therefore seems a very solid finding that men and women are equally strongly drawn to physically attractive partners. This finding, however, appears to be inconsistent with the widely accepted finding in evolutionary research indicating a fundamental sex difference in their preferences for long-term partners—whereas men prefer youth and physical attractiveness in their partners, women give more weight to partners’ earning potential and commitment to a relationship. Evolutionary research does suggest that these sex differences in mating preferences tend to diminish or even disappear when short-term mating contexts are primed (e.g., Li & Kenrick, 2006). One may argue that speed-dating fits better a short-term context rather than a long-term mating context. It is important to note that some of the published speed-dating studies (Kurzban & Weeden, 2005, 2008; Todd et al., 2007) were not based on college student samples but on community adult samples. These participants actually paid to participate in the commercial speed-dating service with the hope to find a life partner. This should be considered as more like a long-term context. Nevertheless, they yielded a similar pattern as found in the college student based samples in Eastwick and Finkel and the current research. Moreover, Eastwick and Finkel did an excellent job ruling out several potential alternative explanations for this finding. For example, even when explicitly asked to consider long-term partners, both sexes continued to favor physical attractiveness. Thus, the lack of sex difference on preference of Speed-Dating Attraction physical attractiveness does not seem to be due to differences in the mating strategy people are taking.
Then how do we reconcile these findings? We consider a fundamental difference between mating preference research and attraction research—whereas mate preference or ideal partner research focuses on conscious, rational cognitions about an ideal partner, attraction research studies less conscious and more spontaneous feelings and behaviors. The difference in findings from these two fields indicates that human beings’ rational, conscious mind can be independent from their behaviors in real-life encounters. In our particular case, it seems that women’s attraction feeling is dominated by partners’ physical attractiveness, just as their male counterparts, even though it is possible that when prompted to think about preferences for a potential mate, women would give priority considerations to characteristics like earning potential. Would that suggest that humans’ conscious, rational thoughts are more a product of evolutionary principles, whereas their actual behaviors can be irrational and not necessarily in their best interests (in terms of reproductive success)? This question warrants further examination.”
SUMMARY OF METHODOLOGY AND CAVEATS
PARTICIPANTS
N=108 college students; 54 men; 54 women
Mean age = 19.5 (range 17 to 26)
Ethnic breakdown not reported, but likely all white
PROCEDURE
6 speed-dating events; each 1 hr long; max 10 women and 10 men at each event (group)
Each participant's photo was taken at the event and independently judged later for physical attractiveness (below)
duration of each speed-date: 5 min
men rotated; women stayed seated
Physical Attractiveness assessment
Eight research collaborators independently rated each participant's photo on a 1-7 scale, with 1 being "very unattractive", 4 being "average", and 7 being "very attractive"
interrater agreement was 0.86
Mean rating for a participant = their final attractiveness score
Romantic interest questionnaire
consisted of the following questions: "Would you be interested in seeing this partner again after the speed-date event?" (answer yes/no), "How much do you like this person as a potential date?" "How interested are you in getting to know this person better?" and "How comfortable do you feel being around this person?" (answer on a 5 pt scale)
filled out by participants at the event then again after the event (after it was revealed whether their date partner had romantic interest in them based on the at-event questionnaire, this was to test reciprocity, which turned out to be significant)
Other questionnaires
included a background questionnaire, inventories of political attitudes, personal values, interests, general personality, affectivity, attachment, and self-esteem
administered pre-event
Obvious caveat
This study only identifies predictors of initial romantic interest, and does not address which factors might predict a change in the magnitude and/or direction of romantic/sexual desirability over more prolonged or repeated interactions, via such processes as the propinquity effect and mere exposure effect (which would serve to increase romantic interest), or their antithesis, social allergy (which decreases romantic interest). Halo effects suggest physical attractiveness would probably hold primacy in predicting sexual/romantic receptiveness for a variable but limited period of time, after which, dyad-specific idiosyncrasies are likely to emerge (2). The salience of physical attractiveness in maintaining (as opposed to initiating) a long-term relationship, progression towards marriage, and subsequent marital satisfaction, may also differ.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propinquity#Propinquity_effect
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interpersonal_attraction#Mere_exposure/exposure_effect
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1350-4126.2005.00115.x
https://static1.squarespace.com/static/504114b1e4b0b97fe5a520af/t/55f09bafe4b0f0a5b7e04f6b/1441831855396/HuntEastwickFinkel2015PSci.pdf

"Sexy" people are perceived as funnier, but funnier people are NOT perceived as sexier

In a recent guest post, Girl On The Net looked at the assumption that women “love a bad boy”, the cliché that women are attracted to more rebellious, undisciplined, aloof characters who play by their own rules like “treat them mean, keep them keen” etc.
But never mind the bad guy, what about the funny guy? It’s an equally common cliché that women are often charmed by a guy who can make them laugh. It certainly pops up in the media often enough. How many sitcoms have you seen where the at-best-average-looking bloke ends up with a woman who’s clearly “out of his league”, purely because he’s wacky, or witty, or cuttingly sarcastic?
Real life isn’t short of examples either. The acronym GSOH is practically mandatory for dating profiles. In his brilliant (if psychologically alarming) autobiography Becoming Johnny Vegas, Vegas pulls no punches when it comes to criticising his own physical appearance and shortcomings, but highlights how his increased comedy success lead to similarly increased attention from women (much to the annoyance of the more typically-attractive blokes watching, a phenomenon that has been scientifically recorded).
And for those with a strong constitution, there’s Dirty British Comedy Confessions, a site where people confess their sexual fantasies about British (and beyond) comedy stars, in often eye-watering detail (thanks to Richard Herring’s Leicester Square Theatre Podcast for flagging this up, and the Greg Davies and Nick Helm episodes in particular).
Ken Dodd at Darlington Civic Theatre, Darlington.
Facebook Twitter Pinterest
Ken Dodd has been making countless people laugh for over half a century, but still isn’t considered a sex symbol for some reason. Photograph: Gary Calton for the Guardian
The link between humour and sexual attraction has a lot to back it up, as the bishop said to the nun. Humour is widely regarded as a complex form of communication, allowing people to convey sentiments and information in an enjoyable and engaging way. If you’ve ever seen a seasoned lecturer make jokes (or at least, attempt to) you’ve seen how prevalent this notion is. So humour is a complex and valuable tool for modern humans. However, when you give a typical human anything at all, one of the main responses will inevitably be “how can I use this to get sex?” And lo, humour has become deeply entrenched in what is questionably referred to as “human mating”, and in a variety of ways.
At the most basic level, it makes sense that we’d be more drawn to someone we find funny. We encounter someone, they make us feel pleasure by making us laugh, we form a positive association with them, and have more positive feelings towards them. Basic associative learning, the kind Pavlov’s dogs demonstrated. Obviously, it’s a lot more complex than that; people can find novelty coffee mugs funny, doesn’t mean they want to have sex with them (although no doubt people who work in A&E could provide evidence to the contrary).
Another theory is that the ability to make jokes and amuse people is a sign of psychological health and fitness, as it requires intelligence, quick thinking, versatility etc. All these things suggest the person is a good mate, from a health and genetics perspective. So maybe jokes and wordplay are the verbal equivalents of a stag’s antlers, or a peacock’s tail; excessive displays of biological health and fitness.
Sign up for Lab Notes - the Guardian's weekly science update
Read more
Again, it’s clearly more complex than this. Very few women will look at a man who makes her laugh and think “Phwoarr, I’d love some of his gametes”. Also, the assumption that “humorous = psychologically healthy” isn’t a definite conclusion; there’s evidence to suggest that many people see excessive humour as a sign that someone is psychologically unwell, hence the whole “tears of a clown” cliché.
Depressingly for those who believe being funny can compensate for being physically unattractive, that seems to only work up to a point. An interesting study by Cowan and Little, which looked at humour and attractiveness found that physically attractive people were deemed to be “funnier” than less attractive people when the subjects could see the speaker. When presented with audio only, this effect wasn’t so pronounced.
Why would attractive people be considered funnier? Surely that’s not how humour works? One explanation is the “halo effect”, where our initial impression of a person causes a bias in all our other assessments of them. So if you look at a man and think “he is attractive”, when he makes jokes you’re more likely to think “he is funny” because you already have positive feelings about him due to how he looks.
Two businessmen wearing paper bags of happy and sad facesBP6JAC Two businessmen wearing paper bags of happy and sad faces
Facebook Twitter Pinterest
It’s technically possible to separate humour from physical appearance, but it takes you to strange places. Photograph: Alamy
In contrast, because the humour-attraction link is well established and manifests in various ways, many might consider attempts at humour as synonymous with flirting. And if a person you don’t find attractive tries to flirt with you, most people really don’t like that, so you experience a negative reaction. Overall, it suggests attractive people have a much easier time of it when it comes to making people laugh. At last, the physically beautiful finally catch a break!
All this comes with many caveats. The style of humour and romantic intent plays a role, because people are complex and aren’t limited to binary funny/unfunny or sexy/unsexy judgements. You also can’t really filter out the countless cultural influences on our perceptions.
For example, the study mentioned above shows that humour is linked to attractiveness for both men and women, but the effect is stronger for women. Is this some deep-rooted evolved mechanism, or the result of everyone around us assuming that women aren’t “supposed” to be the funny ones? Any that are are defying convention, so receive negative responses for this. It’s nonsense of course, but then any woman who displays positive traits seems destined to be attacked for it. We live in a world where even the most physically flawless woman can be criticised and mocked in major publications because a photographer with a powerful camera glimpsed some cellulite between 2 adjacent skin cells.
So it’s assumed that men “should” be the funny ones, and women are the ones who “choose” funnier men. But there’s no rule saying it has to be this way. And this (and nearly every study into the area) focuses solely on heterosexual relationships. There’s nothing to say homosexual interaction doesn’t use humour in similar ways, but the stereotypical culture roles would now throw everything off, so cause even more headaches for scientists.
Overall, while it seems clear that humour and sexual interaction are strongly linked, the idea that funny people are sexier isn’t quite so obvious. People who are already attractive often get perceived as funnier, because the people attracted to them want them to be, even if it is at a subconscious level.
This isn’t an absolute of course, what with humans being as messy and complex as they are, particularly when it comes to sex. Some people really are irresistably drawn to someone who makes them laugh, regardless of looks. Other people have no interest in dating a wannabe clown at all. But, with all that in mind, if you’re wondering why so many current comedians seem to be attractive young men with trendy hair, now you know.
Dean Burnett will be attempting to be funny on stage with Robin Ince at the Guardian Live event about his debut book The Idiot Brain, taking place in London on June 2nd.
The Idiot Brain by Dean Burnett (Guardian Faber, £12.99). To order a copy for £7.99, go to bookshop.theguardian.com or call 0330 333 6846. Free UK p&p over £10, online orders only. Phone orders min. p&p of £1.99.

Aggressive, narcissistic, bullying, "jerkish" men have higher numbers of sexual partners, have sex more often and have higher self-esteem

8 studies pointing to the same direction:
http://archive.is/ZGvcF
https://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40806-017-0126-4
https://www.deccanchronicle.com/lifestyle/sex-and-relationship/161217/dominance-may-make-bullies-more-attractive-leading-to-more-sex-study.html
http://www.wdish.com/life/bullies-sex-study
https://scottbarrykaufman.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/The-Dark-Triad-Personality.pdf
http://archive.is/e6p19
https://www.timesofisrael.com/women-really-dont-go-for-nice-guys-study-indicates/
http://www.newsweek.com/study-finds-men-nice-women-not-other-way-around-261269

Women are more likely to tolerate bad behavior in handsome men, psychologists claim

“Physical attractiveness has been known to act as a cue in determining perceptions of other individuals. Possession of a positive characteristic, such as attractiveness, results in a positive cognitive bias towards the individual. Similarly, possession of a negative characteristic, such as unattractiveness, results in the opposite effect. In addition to unattractiveness, the violation of social norms has been known to act as a cue for this negative bias. This experiment sought to examine how male facial attractiveness interacted with norm violation to alter females’ perceptions of males. Two male faces (attractive and unattractive) bearing similar features were paired with two scenarios of norm violation (high violation and low violation) while being rated on perceived personality characteristics. It was expected that halo/devil effects would occur based on facial attractiveness, and that norm violation would produce a devil effect in the men. An interaction effect between the two was also expected. Participants were 170 female college students. Results were analyzed using a repeated ANOVA and independent t tests. Findings show that a “double” devil effect occurred with the unattractive high violation condition. Norm violation also presented significant results, while facial attractiveness alone did not. Findings pose implications for online dating and jury deliberations.”
submitted by Lubricatedolphin to Inceltalia [link] [comments]


2018.08.01 22:38 s0ngsforthedeaf /r/Championship's Championship club by club season preview - part 1!

Part 2 here - Part 3 here - Part 4 here

On Friday at 8pm UK time, Reading and Derby County will kick off the 127th season of the English second division - also known as the Championship! 24 clubs will compete for 3 promotion spots to the Premier league (2 via automatic promotion and 1 via playoffs) and to avoid the 3 relegation spots to the third tier a.k.a League One.

Its looking like a really tight and competitive season. The league is absolutely full of ambitious player and managerial talent - the more time goes by the more it looks like a Premier League 2. If you want a competitive league with proper English football, that also has the spice of skilful players and forward thinking managers, it really is the place to go.

This is guide written by the fans who have come together on /Championship - an absolutely huge thanks to them. Do check out the sub, we try to keep it a good place to discuss the EFL, away from the rancid gloryhunting shithole that is /soccer (just kidding - I like this place). Lots going on, including a score predictor thread which is running all season.

This guide is in table order with the PL demoted sides first. Only 5 clubs today (because the Swansea one is a fucking novel and I can't fit any more in), the rest will be submitted tomorrow and Friday. Do bare in mind that not all the transfer news will be up to date as these guides were largely written a week ago. Point out to me if there are any clear errors with formatting or spelling.

Championship info, links and media

/Championship's 17/18 player of the season review

Season previews: The Guardian Sky Sports The Mirror
EFL focused podcasts: Not the Top 20 The Totally Football League Show
The 17/18 table - Wolves, Cardiff and Fulham went up. Barnsley, Burton and Sunderland went down. This season West Brom, Swansea and Stoke join from the PL and Wigan, Blackburn and Rotherham join from League 1.
These are the bookies' favourites for promotion (via Oddschecker):
Club Odds
Stoke 2.75
Middlesbrough 4
West Brom 4
Nottingham Forest 4.5
Leeds 4.75
Swansea 5
And relegation:
Club Odds
Rotherham 2.2
Bolton 2.25
Ipswich 4.5
Reading 5
QPR 6
Hull 6
How to watch in the UK: Live rights are owned by Sky Sports. They are upping the number of televised matches this season. Reading v Derby on Friday is televised. The weekly highlights show previously on Channel 5 is moving to Quest TV, which apparently is on Freeview.
How to watch abroad: Depends, but in most territories, the iFollow Service is available, which is £110 to watch all a single club's matches. Bargain. I think the clubs that aren't on iFollow have their own similar streaming services.
Check out club Youtube channels - quite a few of them post extended highlights now with their own commentary, including Derby, Norwich, Sheffield Wednesday, Brentford and more. (You may need VPN to watch if you're abroad.)

Swansea City by RafiakaMacakaDirk and my_knob_is_gr8

Location: Swansea, Wales
Nickname: Swans, The Jacks
Major honours: Football League Cup (2013), Championship Play-off Winner (2011), League One Winners (1925, 1949, 2008)
17/18 finishing postion: 18th (Premier League)
Transfermarkt squad value: €115.5 mil NOTE: This number is as of July 22nd, when we still have Mawson (€15 mil), A. Ayew (€15 mil), Bony (€10 mil), Clucas (€8 mil) and Fernandez (€8 mil), who are all pretty much expected to be sold, or loaned out, before the season starts. Without all of these players except Bony (who's injured for a while so it makes it unlikely he'll be sold soon), the squad value would be around €70 mil.
Manager: Graham Potter joined the Swans on 11th June 2018. In 2010, he became head coach of Östersund, who were in the fourth tier of Swedish football. 5 years later, he got the club promoted into the Swedish top flight and in 2017, they won Svenska Cupen which qualified them for the Europa League where they managed to get through the group stage. He’s been applauded for what he did at Östersund and the way he managed to build the club up from nothing. The year after his success in the Europa league he signed a 3 year contract with Swansea.
Potter is well respected by The Swans and after a few years of poor managerial and financial decisions his appointment is seen as a step in the right direction to bringing us back to our old ways of being a well-run club. Potter has been recognised for his "progressive" and "unconventional" coaching methods. At Östersund, he encouraged his players and staff to engage in community activities, such as performing in theatre and music productions which was designed to take them out of their comfort zone. Potter describes his style of football on the pitch as "tactically flexible, attacking, and possession-based". At Östersund, he deployed a flexible 3–5–2 formation centred on ball possession.
Best player(s)/ talisman:With many of our best players being rumoured with a move away what good players that remain at the start of the season is yet to be seen.
Alfie Mawson is probably our standout player. He’s been amazing for us since we got him and was a bargain at about £3m. He’s great in the air and is just an all round tank. Keeping him will be a huge boost for us and should be solid in the championship.
Federico "El Pajaro" Fernandez has also been strong at the back with Alfie. The pair played with each other for the majority of last season and together became a solid unit. We will most likely sell him to reduce wages though.
Jordan Ayew put in a great shift last season and was our top goal scorer. His work rate was immense and was able to drop back and defend when needed. He’s fast, able to beat a man and a decent finisher. Sadly all these players are transfer targets for other clubs and might not even be here at the start of the season. If we can keep a lot of our players we should have a decent season but who knows who'll be left by the end of the window…
Rising star: Swansea’s U23 had a great season last year and with Potter wanting a young and fresh squad, a handful have moved up into the first team.
Our standout youngster, Oliver McBurnie, joined Barnsley on loan in January last season where he went on to win a Championship player of the month award after 6 goals in 8 games and went on to win Barnsley’s Player of the year award. While only 22, he’s struggled to break into our first team but will most likely be our main striker for the coming season. Be on the lookout for his long legs, miniature shinpads and ridiculous sock length! LEGS LEGS LEGS!!!
Connor Roberts performed well at RB last season and adapted quickly to the premier league where he battled Kyle Naughton to be in the starting line up and did great when given the chance. Decent at going forward and professional at the back. Hopefully potter puts him ahead of Naughton.
What happened last season?: What Happened last season?: After our great escape the season before and with Paul Clement at the helm there was optimism that the 17/18 season could be our turning point where we start rebuilding 'The Swansea Way". How wrong we were.
After a disastrous transfer window where we sold Sigurdsson and never replaced him and started panic buying the week before the transfer window closed we were left an obvious hole in our team. We had no creativity in midfield and no one could kick the ball into the box to save their life. And just to rub it in further Renato Sanches turned out to be more disappointing than Bob Bradley. With the team sitting bottom of the table Clement was sacked in late December.
Then along came the wise talking Carlos Carvalhal who managed to rebuild the confidence the team had lost. Our results took a turn for the good, beating Liverpool, Arsenal, Burnley and West Ham consecutively at home. He pulled us out of the relegation zone and things were looking good. However, the good times were quickly followed by the bad times. Our form turned and we didn’t win a single one of our last 9 matches. We were quickly relegated after pitifully losing to both Southampton and Stoke in our last 2 games of the season.
Highlights (Or lowlights):
The pass by Renato Sanches that summed up his and our season
Swansea City 3-1 Arsenal
Summer transfer business (so far): At the end of last season, it was clear we needed several transfers, both in and out. However, this would all depend on the manager we got.
Yan Dhanda (Free, Liverpool): A 19 year-old Midfielder, Yan Dhanda left Liverpool this summer and joined the Swans in a free, before we even hired Graham Potter. At one time one of the most promosing youngsters in Liverpool's Academy, injuries slowed down his progress, and ultimately made him fall behind other players. Citing lack of first-team playing time, Dhanda decided to join us this summer in hopes of getting regular playing time in the senior squad. Through 3 pre-season games, Dhanda has been one of the brighest and most impressive players in the squad, even scoring a game-winning goal and smashing a penalty in a shootout against Genoa. With our current injuries and shenanigans involved in our midfield, Dhanda has a good chance of becoming a starter and hopefully guide our midfield during the season.
Jordi Govea (Free, Real Madrid): Another 19 year-old from Ecuador, Jordi was the first signing under Potter. Not much can be said about the lad, but this is what Real Madrid had as his bio:
Jordi is an Ecuadorian defender who possess three key qualities for a player in his position: he's skilful, is able to go past a player and has a good shot on him. He's left footed and is able to send in good crosses on the run.
With Martin Olsson currently as our starting LB, and Kyle Naughton as the backup, the hope is that Jordi can develop on our U-23 squad and hopefully move up to the senior squad in coming years. Also the only man I've seen do a medical while wearing jeans (https://twitter.com/SwansOfficial/status/1015251916132057089)
Joel Asoro (€2 mil., Sunderland): Yet another 19 year-old, a Swedish winger who has represented his country in the younger levels, he was Potter's first senior signing. With world-class speed, and some impressive skills, Asoro was able to score 3 goals and get 2 assists last season in 26 apperances for Sunderland. While these numbers may seem a bit disappointing, many of these games were sub appearances on a very dysfunctional team. Along with Dhanda, Asoro has been one of the most impressive players during preseason, constantly beating his man with either speed or skills, and whipping in good balls to Legs. At the current rate, Asoro appears to have a good chance of starting on the right wing spot, with Nathan Dyer and Luciano Narsingh backing him up.
Predicted starting XI: NOTE: This is gonna be assuming Mawson, A. Ayew, Clucas, and Fernandez are all sold by the start of the season. If by some reason they end up staying, they are pretty much guaranteed to start. Based on the pre-season games so far, a lineup looking like this would be plausible, with Rodon most likely to be replaced by a CB (possibly Scott McKenna) when we buy one. Our second unit is looking something like this.
Best case scenario: Graham Potter is able to motivate and make sure our senior players (Fer, Carroll, etc.) stay fit, along with our youngsters being able to make an impact as expected, and also we retain Mawson, Fernandez, and Clucas, we can finish in the top 2 and get promoted automatically.
Worst case scenario: Our worst case scenario, and something many of us fear of happening, consists of primarily 3 things. 1. Graham Potter isn't given enough time to build an identity with our squad and is sacked by the midway point of the season by the greedy, dumb American owners. . 2. We end up not replacing the players we sold properly like last summer, therefore having a squad with holes everywhere and no chemistry. 3. Our youngsters such as Asoro, McBurnie, Dhanda and company don't pan out and progress at all, thefore becoming mediocre players. This would all culminate in us looking like Sunderland, and making relegation a probability.
Prediction: Realistically I see us selling Mawson and company in the last days before the season starts and not replacing them properly until later on. Because of this, as well as our current injuries with Fer and Clucas, I can see us initially struggling to build an identity but over time, we will start playing like Potter wants us and finishing the season strongly.
8th place, missing the play-offs by 4 points
What will happen to your closest rivals?: The scum that is known as Cardiff City will break the record for lowest points ever accumulated in a Premier League season, getting 5 points all from draws, and will therefore get relegated with 17 games to spare.

West Bromwich Albion by Joelwba

Location: The Hawthorns, West Bromwich, West Midlands
Nickname: The Baggies, The Throstles
Major honours: 1x League title, 1x League Cup, 5x FA Cup
17/18 finishing postion: 20th in Premier League (relegated)
Transfermarkt squad value: £101.16m
Manager: Darren Moore or Big Dave as he's known to Albion fans. A club icon as a player in the early 2000s, he returned to look after our U23 squad before being promoted to assistant manager by Alan Pardew in January. Following the end of Pardew's horrific reign, Moore took temporary charge with Albion facing inevitable relegation. He led us to wins over Newcastle, Spurs, Man Utd and a draw with Liverpool, somehow taking our futile battle for survival to the final week of the season. Following this he earned the head coach role permanently. Moore is loved among the Albion faithful, largely due to his reputation as a player here. He heavily favours a 4-4-2 formation and at the back end of last season, tended to soak up pressure and play on the counter attack. It will be interesting to see how his approach differs in a league where we are one of the favourites, not fighting to survive (hopefully)
Best player(s)/ talisman: It's an interesting situation for Albion currently. There are plenty of Premier League quality players still in the squad. A lot depends on if they are picked off before the deadline shuts. Chris Brunt is a club stalwart and likely to be reappointed as captain. He is adored by the fans and in my opinion will be an incredible asset in the championship. His set pieces alone will bring 10+ goals to the side. Kieran Gibbs is a high quality player who appears to be set to stay and should make a big difference. Jay Rodriguez, Craig Dawson, Salomon Rondon and Nacer Chadli should all make a big difference in this division IF they stay. In all honesty I expect to lose a few of the above. Sam Johnstone appears to be an astute signing to replace the outgoing Ben Foster.
Rising star: Sam Field he's one of our own! He looked completely at home against some of the top Premier League sides last campaign. A box-to-box midfielder, he's full of energy and looks so comfortable on the ball. I expect him to be a major part of our side this season, having just signed a new long-term deal.
Kyle Edwards is an exciting attacking midfielder who has been impressing in pre-season. He may have a part to play following a loan spell at Exeter last campaign.
Jonathon Leko looked like a potential world-beater when he first came through a couple of years back. A lightning quick winger full of tricks. A loan spell at Bristol City and limited appearances later he seems to be losing his way. Will be an interesting one to watch.
Finally, the enigma that is Olly Burke. After signing with us last summer for £15m, he failed to impress any of the four managers we had over the season. He looks exciting when he comes on, without any end product so far, and was unfairly blamed for a loss at West Ham by Alan 'Coward' Pardew. We all know the talent he's got. Hopefully we can see it this season.
What happened last season?: Let's not talk about it... We finally escaped the stranglehold of Tony Pulis, only to opt for the human joke that is Alan Pardew and duly hurtled towards relegation. Four of our players stole a taxi and then played (and lost) the following weekend.
Pardew was sacked about 3 months too late, and Moore took over, restoring pride with some notable wins over Man Utd and Spurs.
This season we also lost the great Cyrille Regis, and the outpouring of emotion and the coming together of the club during the weeks after his passing was something special.
Summer transfer business (so far): We started by releasing Claudio Yacob, Boaz Myhill and Gareth McAuley. Yacob and McAuley will be greatly missed but it is perhaps the right time for them to go.
Jonny Evans departed for Leicester for a cut-price £3m, Ben Foster left for Watford and James McClean has departed for Stoke City.
Sam Johnstone has been bought in to replace Foster, with Jonathon Bond arriving as backup. Kyle Bartley has joined from Swansea City and it appears that Harvey Barnes will soon be arriving on loan from Leicester.
Finally, James Morrison is currently out of contract but still with the club. His future is uncertain.
I am very happy with Johnstone and Bartley. It has been a quiet window for Albion so far but that is largely a good thing. The squad is packed with Premier League talent and the window is more about keeping hold of them.
There is major interest in Dawson and Rondon, along with interest in Rodriguez, Hegazi and Chadli. If any of the above go, then we would need to replace. Otherwise I would be happy with another striker and another CB.
It is also worth mentioning that every player in the Albion side suffered a 50% wage cut upon relegation which means that we are financially sound despite relegation, but may lead to more big names leaving.
Predicted starting XI: This is my best attempt. It will undoubtedly be 4-4-2. We may see Nyom in at right back and perhaps Barry in for Field.
Obviously about half of this side could leave, so we shall see.
Best case scenario: The bulk of the side remains and the quality in the side shines through as we breeze to automatic promotion.
Worst case scenario: The better players leave or do not put the effort in. Moore cannot transfer his great start into his first full season in management. We become embroiled in a relegation battle
Prediction: It will be somewhere in the middle. I'd like to think we'll go up automatically but I think play-offs are more likely. 6th
What will happen to your closest rivals?: Villa won't go down but will settle into mid-table, despite the recent takeover.
I think Wolves will do well in the PL, although I don't know how long Nuno will last before a big club comes in.

Stoke City by mrmariomaster

Location: Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire
Nickname: The Potters
Stadium: bet365 Stadium, 30,089 seats
Major honours: 1972 League Cup
17/18 finishing position: 19th, Premier League
Squad value: £127.8 million
Manager: Gary Rowett signed from Derby in May. His honest attitude has brought lots of optimism to fans, who are looking forward to an overhaul of the Club. His style of play seems to change based on the squad he has available.
Best Player: Joe Allen was vital to the Club last season, giving us hope that we would avoid relegation. His massive new contract signed this summer shows how loyal and committed to the Club he is, and will be a vital player this season.
Rising star: Tom Edwards is a local lad who has won the Under 18 Player of the Year award twice in the Club. In the latter parts of last season he played some good first team football.
What happened last season: A pathetic attempt at a season that had been coming for a while under Mark Hughes. Paul Lambert was appointed in January, but a win rate of just 2 in 15 matches wasn’t enough for him to keep his job and miss out on the million pound bonus offered to him.
Transfer business so far: So far this has been a decent transfer window. Peter Etebo had an amazing World Cup for Nigeria and Benik Afobe looks really promising. Adam Federici has also been appointed to replace Lee Grant. Xherdan Shaqiri has left along with a few players like Stephen Ireland and Glen Johnson who will not be missed. Badou Ndiaye also looks to be on his way out, but it looks like Jack Butland will stay with us, which is massive. Perhaps most surprising are the new contracts signed by our 2 best players last season, Joe Allen and Moritz Bauer.
Predicted Line up: Here is our predicted squad. I’m not sure what formation we will have. EDIT: This is a new version, complete with our rumoured new signings and in the right formation.
Best case scenario: Stoke will finish top with an all-time Championship points record.
Worst case scenario: A mediocre start to the season will see Rowett sacked and Stoke with a disappointing mid-table finish.
Prediction: I think with our squad and our new manager, we will finish 1st.
What will happen to our closest rivals? Port Vale will be relegated to the Vanarama National League.

Aston Villa by trueschoolalumni

Location: Villa Park, Trinity Rd, Birmingham B6 6HE
Nickname: The Villans, The Villa, Prince William's Club, David "Twat" Cameron's Second Club.
Major honours: 7 First Division wins, 7 FA Cups, 5 League Cups, 1 European Cup, 1 European Super Cup, 1 Intertoto Cup
17/18 finishing postion: 4th
Transfermarkt squad value: £67.77m and dropping fast
Manager: Steve Bruce (for now). Former Man Utd playing legend who's been a fixture of English football for decades. He joined Villa in 2016 after successful runs at Hull, Sunderland (yes they were good once) and Birmingham City. A bit of a promotion specialist, he's taken Championship clubs up to the Premier League 4 times in the past and just missed out last season, losing 1-0 to Fulham in the Playoff Final. Tactically, he's fairly old school who prefers 4-4-2 or a 4-1-4-1, usually involving a big man up top. Fun fact: while managing Huddersfield in 1999 he wrote three novels, "Striker!", "Sweeper!" and "Defender!", which focus on main character Steve Barnes, a football manager. Barnes solves crime and takes on terrorists, and the books have become prized rarities. The Guardian's Football Weekly podcast managed to get a copy and read out some of the copy - suitably awful.
Best player(s)/ talisman: There's only one Jack Grealish. A Villa boy through and through, he's been with the club since 2001 (aged 6), and made his way into the first team in the 2013-14 season. He's been the centre of controversy a few times, most notably getting on the beers and passing out on a Tenerife street. Playing as a number 10, his quick feet and dribbling skills provide a number of goals and assists, as well as fouls. He probably went down a bit too easily when first in the Premier League, but time in the gym has noticeably toughened him up and he's a much more solid player as a result. One of the better players in the Championship, and due to Villa's abject finances, a transfer target for the likes of Leicester.
Rising star: Keinan Davis could possibly be it, potentially Andre Green and Rushian Hepburn-Murphy as well.
What happened last season?: Have you ever walked into a casino, spotted the roulette table and popped £10,000 on red? It's a bold strategy, Cotton. Let's see if it pays off. You've doubled your money if you win, but look like a right git if you lose. Villa figured this was a good way to approach 2017-18: spend millions on players, get in lots of loans, gamble everything on achieving promotion. After a so-so start, Bruce got the team playing well, stringing together a number of wins and moving through the playoff spots. Unfortunately they ran into a few teams playing out of their skin - champions Wolves ran away with the league and boasted a squad that included several Champions League players. Neil Warnock's Cardiff couldn't stop winning and grabbed the second automatic promotion. In the playoff final Villa came up against a Ryan Sessegnon-led Fulham and were just pipped at the post 1-0.
Summer transfer business (so far): It's one-way traffic, due to absolutely abysmal finances. Loan spells for Lewis Grabban, Robert Snodgrass, Josh Onomah and Sam Johnstone have all ended, which is almost the spine of the team (Johnstone in particular - he was arguably the best keeper in the Championship and personally bagged a number of wins). Plus clubs are circling to pick off whatever assets we have left (eg. Jack Grealish, James Chester). With no prospect of anyone new coming in, it looks like the youth academy will be getting a lot more game time.
Predicted starting XI: Possibly this, but half these players could be gone before the first match.
Best case scenario: Mid-table anonymity would have to be best case - Villa are a mess and could go down this time around.
Worst case scenario: Our finances are the real issue - they are dire. Villa need to find £9 million this month to avoid going into administration. Owner "Dr." Tony Xia is a billionaire, apparently, but tax bills went unpaid and the question remains if he's able to support the club as generously as he has in the past. Administration, points deductions and potentially relegation to League One are all real possibilities right now. It's not looking good.
Prediction: Due to financial irregularities in the 23 clubs above us, Villa will get into the Champions League and take out the likes of Atletico, Bayern and Real Madrid on the way to our second European Cup. "Taylor, Green, prepared to venture down the left. There's a good ball played in for Jack Grealish. Oh, it must be and it is! It's Keinan Davis!"
What will happen to your closest rivals?: Unfortunately the Scum managed to avoid League One in the final rounds of the season. Here's hoping they go one better. Agbonlahor to re-sign for one game: the Derby. And score the winner, again.

Middlesbrough by OneSmallHuman

Location: The Riverside Stadium, Middlesbrough
Founded: 1876
Nickname: The Boro (Or just Boro)
Major honours: The League cup 2003-2004 season
17/18 finishing position: 5th
Transfermarkt squad value: 79.34m
Manager: Tony Pulis became manager of us in late December 2017, replacing the sacked Garry Monk after a pretty lacklustre few months of the campaign (despite where our league position was). Pulis is known in England for being the man that is never relegated when in charge of someone in the top flight. We are all aware of Tony Pulis' style of football. You start by having a strong and massive defence and maximise your use of set pieces to gain an advantage. Pulis is a lover of all set piece plays, whether that is crossing the ball in from a corner or free kick, or launching a ball into the box from a throw in, they're all in his arsenal of weapons. 'Pulisball' as it is pretty much known. Pulis has achieved promotion from the championship once before with Stoke, and I hope he achieves it again with us this season
Best player(s)/ rising star: I mean, where else do I begin. Adama Traore. Arguably the best player in the championship on his day and is one of the most frightening dribblers in English football, maybe even world football. The winger is known for his speed and dribbling ability although is usually criticised for his lack of end product. Before last season I would've agreed, however 5 goals and 10 assists, with all but 2 assists coming before Pulis' arrival show the progression of the Spanish winger.
As for other members of the squad, Ben Gibson, the prodigal son. Boro through and through he's progressed into a commanding centre half with the ability to play out from the back thanks to Karanka. He gained attention and emerged as one of the few given credit after our disappointing premier league campaign but was only the subject of one bid upon our relegation, from now manager Tony Pulis. It remains to be seen whether he'll be here come the first game of the season, but I hope he will be.
As for future stars, Dael Fry, already has played 2 championship campaigns for us and looks as assured as a veteran of the game. Another centre half produced by our academy and he is being played in cdm this pre-season by Pulis, to add to his versatility. Hopefully a standout season for him, especially if Gibson does end up leaving. Finally, yes, he does always look as confused as images of him show.
What happened last season?: Well, the first half of the season was tragic under Monk. We played really poor football at times and looked like we hadn't defended a day in our lives. There was also no consistency in the team, we'd win one game then lose the next. A key theme under both managers however, was our inability to beat those around us in the table. After Pulis' appointment the results picked up and it ended with us finishing 5th in the table. We ultimately lost in the playoff semi finals to Aston Villa but honestly, we didn't think we'd even be in the top half around Christmas.
Summer transfer business (so far): Just the three deals to talk about so far. We've acquired Paddy McNair from Sunderland who looks like a decent player. He's been utilised in right back and midfield during pre-season so it looks like they'll be his positions for the season. I imagine he'll play alongside Clayts and Howson in a midfield three.
Aden Flint was signed from Bristol City and I think I'm in the minority when I say I don't like how much we paid for him. Obviously the man is a Pulis player but I'm a bit unsure about his defensive ability. That being said he's looked strong during pre-season and I'm sure Pulis will get the best out of him. Fabio departed our club for Nantes so we'll need more full back cover.
As for the rest of the window, I expect Gibson to leave but will be delighted if he doesn't. One of our strikers will also leave and Braithwaite should follow after his decent World Cup performances. We'll probably bring in a striker and a winger and hopefully hold onto Adama. That'd be a successful window in my eyes.
Predicted starting XI: My best guess The only other guess I could make is that Gibson might leave and then Ayala would start, but he's injured at this point in time. Britt might play over Gestede too if Pulis is feeling fancy.
Best case scenario: It has to be top of the pile right? It's not out of the question to imagine us up there and if everything clicks then we've got a chance. A defence that scores more than some teams' strikers, Adama channelling his inner Messi and finding consistency, Rudy/Britt/Bamford scoring for fun. It could be carnage.
Worst case scenario: I can't see us finishing outside the playoffs, if we did then that would be gut-wrenching. But if we did then that would most certainly be the worst. Realistically, it'd be losing in the playoffs... again, and if it were in the final again then god help me. Although saying this, now losing Bamford and maybe Traore will be a worst case scenario in itself, definitely if they're not replaced.
Prediction: Have to be confident, although it always kills me. 1st or 2nd. Tony Pulis and his nice white trainers carry us to the promise land. That being said, we never do it the easy way.
Best Match of Last Season Sorry Leeds fans, but it had to be. "Hattrick Bamford" as our Twitter account tweeted, 3-0 against Leeds with Adama running the show. Leeds clearly found some positive from the game as they're set to sign him off us. This was the sign of what we should've done more last season. Showed what Paddy could've been too if given an even more extended period in Striker by himself. Oh well.
What will happen to your closest rivals?: Who even are our closest rivals in this league? We're in geographical purgatory. Can't say Sunderland anymore so what? Leeds? Bielsa either turns them into the well oiled machine they hope for or he succumbs to the old Leeds ways and is sacked by December. As for the Mackems, probably promoted from League 1.
submitted by s0ngsforthedeaf to soccer [link] [comments]


2018.07.22 13:43 sarcastichorse The Times 30 Best Comedians Working Today

The Article is here, but there's a paywall. I'm sure people will find some notable omissions, so it's probably worth reading the preface from the writer first.
So then: who’s funniest? In compiling this list of the 30 best English-speaking comedians at work today, I gave myself some parameters. This would be an overview of who is at the top of their game now, on stage or screen or even podcast. It is not a guide to the most influential living comedians. It is not a handing out of long-service medals. So: no Pythons, no Mighty Booshes, no French and Saunders, nor even – though he came close – any Gervaises. It’s a snapshot of now.
Am I objective, or am I just listing what has made me laugh most in the past year or so? As The Times’s comedy critic, I get to see loads of live comedy by comedians old and new, have the luxury of thinking about it and talking about it and writing about it. I am, I hope, an expert. I also know that in comedy more than any other art form, expertise means zilch if something doesn’t get you in the gut. Ever tried convincing someone that they have made a mistake in not finding something funny? It’s not a good conversation.
So, yes, this is my list of the men and women who have cheered me, thrilled me, moved me, inspired me and, yes, of course, surprised me into laughter. The list is still more male than female, still largely white, but things are changing fast.
It is a good time for comedy. And a show like Hannah Gadsby’s, though not the funniest in the world right now, may prove to be the most important in the world right now. It argues for a new language for the form, goes beyond comedy to do so, while expanding and excelling at the language we already have. Or, more succinctly: I loved it! It’s great! See it!
1 Stewart Lee, 50
I marvelled at the skill, I thrilled to the boldness, most importantly I laughed till it hurt when I saw Lee’s latest show, Content Provider, at the start of its tour 18 months ago. Do his teasing stand-up routines about everything from Trump and Brexit (correct, he’s a fan of neither) to Game of Thrones and mobile phones (ditto) hold up today on the performance recorded for television in May? Amazingly, they do: pretty much every moment has some sort of delicious surprise. And if a show addressing “the individual in a digitised free-market society” sounds highfalutin, Lee unspools these two hours with a sense of fun underlying every gear he goes through: abrasive, ironic, confessional, interactive, absurd, clownish, arrogant, but above all playful.
See him: on BBC Two on July 28 at 10.45pm
2 Hannah Gadsby, 40
It’s possible you will see flat-out funnier shows than Gadsby’s breakthrough hour, Nanette. It’s unlikely you will see another one as mesmerising, intelligent, inspiring and well-timed; this Australian comic smilingly explores and explodes misogyny, the history of western art, homophobia and stand-up comedy itself. She proves herself one of comedy’s great modern masters even as she highlights its tricks, even as she questions whether it’s done her more harm than good. No wonder Nanette won live comedy’s two biggest prizes last year, the Barry award in Melbourne and the Edinburgh Comedy award (the latter jointly with John Robins). Since it went on Netflix in June, it’s gone viral; last week it was declared “a word-of-mouth phenomenon” in The New York Times. Even if you flinch from labels such as “identity politics”, this is that rarest of shows; one that makes you see the world anew. With, for its first half at least, plenty of laughs along the way.
See her: Nanette is available on Netflix
3 Harry Hill, 53
How has Harry Hill managed to reinvent himself, six years after ending TV Burp, four years after his misfiring X-Factor musical, I Can’t Sing!? By finding a format that enables him to double down on what makes him great and by reincorporating so much of the vigorous absurdity we love from Burp and his stand-up work into Harry Hill’s Alien Fun Capsule, a primetime ITV panel show in which he rode roughshod over the format and the gobsmacked but game celebrity panellists. On a good week — most weeks — he turned tack into pure joy.
See him: Harry Hill’s Kidz Show: How to Be Funny, New Theatre, Oxford (0844 8713020), Oct 21, then touring to Nov 24
4 Dave Chappelle, 44
“And that’s why I make the big bucks!” says Chappelle, right after a routine in which he first announces what his wildly offensive punchline will be, then surprises and charms us all when he delivers it. Vaping away on stage in his latest Netflix stand-up special, he talks about parenthood and white privilege, responds to accusations of transphobia, and mixes thoughtfulness with the sort of braggadocio that might make him collide with a hornet’s nest or two, but somehow means he never gets stung for long.
See him: Equanimity and The Bird Revelation are available on Netflix
5 Tim Key, 41
On screen, Key is a reliably loveable supporting turn: as Sidekick Simon to Alan Partridge; in Peep Show, Detectorists, Gap Year. On stage or radio, he’s a genre of his own. He won an Edinburgh Comedy award in 2009, but the debonairly dishevelled way that he combines performance poetry with arty films, outrageous narratives, deadpan absurdism, audience molestation and theatrical conceits has only got better since then. I laughed so much at his latest show, Megadate, that I shed a tear when it ended.
See him: Megadate on tour, including Pleasance Courtyard, Edinburgh (0131 226 0000), Aug 16-26, and Old Vic, London SE1, Sept 28, or its filmed spin-off, Wonderdate, on BBC iPlayer
6 Steve Coogan, 52
We’re trying not to get our hopes up for the new Alan Partridge series coming to BBC One this year. And yet not only were Coogan and Rob Brydon on fine form in The Trip to Spain — lovely scenery, fine dining and smart subplots all clearing space for some really good impressions — but the books that he and co-writers Neil and Rob Gibbons have written recently as Partridge were laugh-out-loud delights. So sod it: Coogan is one of the world’s great character comics and Alan Partridge is the greatest comic character of the past 30 years. No offence, David Brent.
Hear him: performing the audiobooks of I, Partridge and Alan Partridge: Nomad
7 Flight of the Conchords, 44 and 42
After two series of their American sitcom, Jemaine Clement and Bret McKenzie decided they had lost the fun in their deadpan double act and musical parodies, and headed home to New Zealand. Yet, as their recent reunion shows proved, this unlikely pair can make a private joke swell to fill a 20,000-seater stadium. They mock all sorts of musical genres and social situations. Crucially, though, they ply sweetness as well as sarcasm, and real musical skill. They’ve never been better.
See them: their new special, recorded on their British tour, is on HBO this year
8 Michelle Wolf, 33
Her Edinburgh Fringe appearance in 2016 marked out this former Daily Show contributor as one of America’s brightest young talents. Then, hello, her fierce, funny, fearless speech at the White House correspondents’ dinner took her into another league. Not only did she take on Trump with naked but nifty hostility (hey, who doesn’t?), she also roasted the media outlets present for delighting too much in Trump’s awfulness. Where next for Wolf? Can’t wait to find out.
See her: giving her White House correspondents’ dinner speech on YouTube
9 Peter Kay, 45
He pulled out of the biggest stand-up tour of the year for “unforeseen family circumstances”. We know no more than that. Yet what he did give us this year, the final episode of his and Sian Gibson’s sitcom Car Share, was full of all the acute lifelike observations the series has excelled in, plus an anything but lifelike sequence in which he replaced Gary Barlow in an old Take That video. A comedy star for two decades, yet still Kay is as good as it gets at having fun with the small concerns of everyday life.
See him: Car Share is available to stream on iTunes, Amazon etc
10 Bridget Christie, 46
No comedian responded to Brexit better — or faster — than Christie, who rewrote an entire Edinburgh show from scratch in the aftermath of the EU referendum. Her latest live hour, What Now?, is just as good, organised around the neat conceit that in these deceptive times she is morally obliged to speak only the truth. Cue glorious routines about awful television executives, awful children, awful parents, the passive-aggressive admin sessions that make up a marriage (in her case, although she would never mention it on stage, to Stewart Lee). Nobody mixes the raging and the ridiculous with such fabulous focus.
See her: Leicester Square Theatre, London WC2 (020 7734 2222), Sept 13-Nov 10, and touring to Dec 4, bridgetchristie.co.uk
11 Trevor Noah, 34
Born in apartheid-era South Africa, the son of a Xhosa mother and a Swiss-German father, Noah grew up speaking English as his first language, a master of both engaging with different cultures and seeing their kinks clearly. That skill enabled him to take over The Daily Show from Jon Stewart in 2015. Live, though, he has gone from being a skilled stand-up to a spectacular one: Noah now is a master of satire, impressions and throwaway funny stories, and is impassioned and inclusive. He is writing a second memoir; his first, Born a Crime, is being filmed with Lupito Nyong’o as his mother, Patricia.
See him: his latest stand-up special, Afraid of the Dark, is on Netflix.
12 Daniel Kitson, 41
Two reasons why Kitson is the comedian’s comedian: 1) At his best, this Yorkshireman has a speed of thought that has no peer. 2) Ever since he won the Perrier award in 2002, age 25, he has worked entirely on his own terms. No television. No radio. A habit of staging plays at the National or the Old Vic one moment, returning to stand-up the next. Charging cinema prices as he does so. He can be sprawling, he can be arrogant, but his ambition and skill are second to none.
See him: his new work-in-progress midnight show, Good for Glue, is at The Stand, Edinburgh (0131 226 0000), Aug 5-26, returns only
13 Bob Mortimer, 59
This renaissance-man absurdist is on the form of his life after recovering from a triple heart bypass. He still works with Vic Reeves — a new series of their Big Night Out is imminent — but also has a footballing podcast, Athletico Mince, and excelled alongside Paul Whitehouse in Mortimer & Whitehouse: Gone Fishing. His comedy is as victimless as it is disarming.
See him: Mortimer & Whitehouse: Gone Fishing is on BBC iPlayer
14 Chris Rock, 53
When comedians ooze a confidence they don’t deserve, it’s infuriating. When comedians ooze a confidence their talent backs up, it’s exhilarating. That’s Rock, who uses his latest stand-up show to own up to the porn habit and cheating that broke his marriage, but also to speak up for a common-sensicality he fears is in peril from right and left alike.
See him: his latest stand-up special, Tamborine, is on Netflix
15 The League of Gentlemen
Mark Gatiss, Steve Pemberton, Reece Shearsmith and Jeremy Dyson have been so busy with other work (Sherlock, Inside No 9, Ghost Stories) that we may just have forgotten how fabulous they were together in their gleefully gnarly sketch troupe. Last Christmas’s television comeback changed that in a trice after 12 years away. Now, the big live tour. If it’s only a temporary reunion, let’s enjoy it while we can.
See them: Queens Theatre, Barnstaple (01271 316063), Aug 6 & 7, then touring to Sept 29; leagueofgentlemen.live
16 Julia Davis, 51
Dear Joan and Jericha, the agony-aunt podcast that Julia Davis and Vicki Pepperdine surprised us with this year, is as quietly, brutally funny as you’d expect from the woman behind Nighty Night, Hunderby and Camping. And filthy enough to make you think of a female Derek and Clive. Coming soon: Davis’s new series for Sky, Sally4Ever, while the Girls creator Lena Dunham is making an American version of Camping.
Hear her: on Dear Joan and Jericha
17 Tim Vine, 51
There are some fine one-liner merchants about: Jimmy Carr, Milton Jones, Stewart Francis, Gary Delaney. None of them sustain a live show as blissfully well as Jeremy Vine’s kid brother. He delivers his artful wordplay with a heroically uncool, end-of-the-pier enthusiasm, allied to silly props and silly songs. He makes the real world melt away.
See him: performing his Sunset Milk Idiot show, City Varieties, Leeds (0113 243 0808), Oct 2 & 3, then touring to Oct 31; timvine.com
18 Sara Pascoe, 37
Once, Pascoe performed dense, fascinating, provocatively philosophical and personal live shows, pushing at the edges of what comedy could do. Then, somewhere between her becoming a panel-show stalwart and her latest live show, LadsLadsLads, she found a way of uniting her big ideas with something still personal, but lighter, more gag-filled. The results are still smart, but newly joyous.
See her: Theatre Royal, Norwich (01603 630000), Sept 16, then touring to Nov 28; sarapascoe.com
19 Michael McIntyre, 42
There aren’t many comics who can make amusing 20,000 strangers in an atmosphere-free arena look like such a doddle. So don’t underestimate McIntyre, whose beaming smile conceals a planet-sized comic brain that can seize on pretty much any topic and make merry with it.
See him: his Big World Tour resumes Sept 4-Nov 11; michaelmcintyre.co.uk. Michael Mcintyre’s Big Show returns to BBC One later this year
20 Romesh Ranganathan, 40
After starting out as a maths teacher in Crawley, West Sussex, the gorgeously grumpy Ranganathan has now become not only a formidably funny stand-up, but is also fronting travel documentaries, a forthcoming courtoom show (Judge Romesh) and has sitcoms on the way too. Talk about making up for lost time.
See him: The Misadventures of Romesh Ranganathan is on BBC iPlayer
21 Lee Mack, 49
Is there any greater pleasure in comedy than Lee Mack going off on one on Would I Lie to You? His mind moving faster than a speeding train, he will pounce on and play with any passing absurdity. All credit to Rob Brydon and David Mitchell, who balance him perfectly, but it’s Mack who is the star soloist on one of the most dependably entertaining formats of the past decade.
See him: Would I Lie to You? is on BBC iPlayer and repeated on Dave
22 Sarah Silverman, 47
She snarked for America in her early stand-up. Now, although her sarcasm is still to the fore, the comic and actress (that’s her behind a tennis-court-sized pair of shades in Battle of the Sexes) is adding personal stories and emotional awareness to comedy that snarls smartly. And her Twitter exchange with a troll to whom she extended support rather than spite showed the heart behind the snark.
See her: on A Speck of Dust, her most recent stand-up special for Netflix (in which she speaks about her former boyfriend Michael Sheen)
23 Simon Amstell, 38
Television presenter, sitcom star, vegan activist: but best of all a confessional stand-up. In his fifth and finest live show, playing to acclaim in New York, Amstell takes us past his early worries about homosexuality and into a new kind of self-acceptance. Among British-based stand-ups, only Dylan Moran can rival him for mixing the accessible with the questingly intellectual.
See him: Regent’s Park Open Air Theatre, London NW1 (0844 8264242), Aug 19
24 Tina Fey, 48
Not content with turning her film Mean Girls into a Broadway musical this year, Fey has also kept her hand in as a performer on Saturday Night Live, and remains one of the great writer-performers in modern American comedy. OK, her sitcom Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt isn’t quite 30 Rock. What is, though?
See her: hosting a celebrity-heavy Q&A session on the final episode of Saturday Night Live’s most recent season, on SNL’s YouTube channel
25 John Oliver, 41
This British satirist has been plying unabashedly intelligent, outspoken satire as the host of the crusading American talk show Last Week Tonight With John Oliver since 2014. Crucially, while he’s all about the issues, he doesn’t mistake himself for John Pilger. “It’s not journalism,” he once said. “It’s comedy first, and it’s comedy second.”
See him: Last Week Tonight is on hbo.com, or watch clips on YouTube
26 Reginald D Hunter, 49
Before Reginald D Hunter’s previous tour, his agent begged him to do some “light, funny, bouncy” jokes — not just the sort of stuff about sex and race and politics and family that gets them both into trouble. Well, even at his lightest this American-comedian-in-Britain can’t do bouncy, but what he will do is toy with liberal and conservative preconceptions in a way that’s always entertaining and often masterly.
See him: at Pleasance at EICC, Edinburgh (0131 226 0000), Aug 1-26. Reginald D Hunter’s Songs of the Border is on BBC Two on July 28 at 9pm
27 Sophie Willan, 30
Anyone for gnarly questions of how the world describes us and how we describe ourselves? Nobody? Ah, but the wonder of Willan’s latest show, Branded, is the way she reminds us how complex identity is, even as she investigates the implications of being a female, northern, working-class comic, the daughter of a heroin addict and more. All with the breeziness of a frothy club set. Remarkable.
See her: rescheduled dates from the Branded tour are at Theatr Mwldan, Cardigan (01239 621200), Sept 21; Wyeside Arts Centre, Builth Wells (01982 552555), Sept 22
28 Sacha Baron Cohen, 46
The jury is still out on Baron Cohen’s return to television, Who Is America? — a display of pointed pranking that is funny or resonant only when picking on someone his own size (the Republicans endorsing a crazy campaign to arm four-year-olds, say). His gumption and virtuosity is undeniable; we wait to see if bigger targets such as Roy Moore and Dick Cheney bring out the best from the London-born comic’s huge talent.
See him: on Who Is America?, Channel 4, Mondays, 10pm
29 Mo Gilligan, 30
If you’ve not heard of him, despite his huge tour that visits the West End in October, that may be because he broke through on social media, is only now getting going on live and television work. Already, though, this south London actor turned comic has such skill, such charisma, such promise. When his writing gets as sharp as his performing, the arenas surely beckon.
See him: as a sidekick on The Big Narstie Show on Channel 4; in the Coupla Cans tour at the Vaudeville, London WC2 (0330 3334814), Oct 22-Nov 10
30 Diane Morgan, 42
Best known as the spoof pundit Philomena Cunk. In BBC shows such as Cunk on Britain, she brings extraordinary comic presence and improvising skills to a character who is as fearless as she is clueless. She’s also the best thing in the parenting sitcom Motherland.
See her: on YouTube, where clips and episodes are spottily available. Or in the DVD of Motherland
submitted by sarcastichorse to StandUpComedy [link] [comments]


2018.07.17 01:46 Chtorrr cat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This article is about the cat species that is commonly kept as a pet. For the cat family, see Felidae. For other uses, see Cat (disambiguation) and Cats (disambiguation). For technical reasons, "Cat #1" redirects here. For the album, see Cat 1 (album). Domestic cat[1] Cat poster 1.jpg Various types of domestic cat Conservation status Domesticated Scientific classification e Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Felidae Subfamily: Felinae Genus: Felis Species: F. silvestris Subspecies: F. s. catus Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus Linnaeus, 1758[2] Synonyms Felis catus (original combination)[3] Felis catus domestica (invalid junior synonym)[4]
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus)[1][5] is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal. They are often called house cats[6] when kept as indoor pets or simply cats when there is no need to distinguish them from other felids and felines. They are often valued by humans for companionship and for their ability to hunt vermin. There are more than seventy cat breeds recognized by various cat registries.
Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felids, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws and teeth adapted to killing small prey. Cat senses fit a crepuscular and predatory ecological niche. Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals. They can see in near darkness. Like most other mammals, cats have poorer color vision and a better sense of smell than humans. Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a social species, and cat communication includes the use of a variety of vocalizations (mewing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting) as well as cat pheromones and types of cat-specific body language.[7]
Cats have a high breeding rate.[8] Under controlled breeding, they can be bred and shown as registered pedigree pets, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering, as well as the abandonment of former household pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, requiring population control.[9] In certain areas outside cats' native range, this has contributed, along with habitat destruction and other factors, to the extinction of many bird species. Cats have been known to extirpate a bird species within specific regions and may have contributed to the extinction of isolated island populations.[10] Cats are thought to be primarily responsible for the extinction of 87 species of birds,[11] and the presence of feral and free-ranging cats makes some otherwise suitable locations unsuitable for attempted species reintroduction.[12]
Because cats were venerated in ancient Egypt, they were commonly believed to have been domesticated there,[13] but there may have been instances of domestication as early as the Neolithic from around 9,500 years ago (7500 BC).[14] A genetic study in 2007[15] concluded that all domestic cats are descended from Near Eastern wildcats, having diverged around 8000 BC in the Middle East.[13][16] A 2016 study found that leopard cats were undergoing domestication independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domesticated populations of today.[17][18] A 2017 study confirmed that domestic cats are descendants of those first domesticated by farmers in the Near East around 9,000 years ago.[19][20]
As of a 2007 study, cats are the second-most popular pet in the U.S. by number of pets owned, behind freshwater fish.[21] In a 2010 study, they were ranked the third-most popular pet in the UK, after fish and dogs, with around 8 million being owned.[22]
Contents 1 Taxonomy and evolution 2 Nomenclature and etymology 3 Biology 3.1 Anatomy 3.2 Physiology 3.2.1 Nutrition 3.3 Senses 3.4 Health 3.4.1 Diseases 3.5 Genetics 4 Behavior 4.1 Sociability 4.2 Communication 4.3 Grooming 4.4 Fighting 4.5 Hunting and feeding 4.6 Running 4.7 Play 4.8 Reproduction 5 Ecology 5.1 Habitats 5.2 Feral cats 5.3 Impact on prey species 5.4 Impact on birds 6 Interaction with humans 6.1 Cat show 6.2 Cat café 6.3 Ailurophobia 6.4 Cat bites 6.5 Infections transmitted from cats to humans 6.6 History and mythology 6.6.1 Superstitions and cat burning 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links Taxonomy and evolution Main article: Cat evolution The domestic cat is a member of the cat family, the felids, which are a rapidly evolving family of mammals that share a common ancestor only 10–15 million years ago[23] and include lions, tigers, cougars and many others. Within this family, domestic cats (Felis catus) are part of the genus Felis, which is a group of small cats containing about seven species (depending upon classification scheme).[1][24] Members of the genus are found worldwide and include the jungle cat (Felis chaus) of southeast Asia, European wildcat (F. silvestris silvestris), African wildcat (F. s. lybica), the Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti), and the Arabian sand cat (F. margarita), among others.[25]
The domestic cat is believed to have evolved from the Near Eastern wildcat, whose range covers vast portions of the Middle East westward to the Atlantic coast of Africa.[26][27] Between 70,000 and 100,000 years ago the animal gave rise to the genetic lineage that eventually produced all domesticated cats,[28] having diverged from the Near Eastern wildcat around 8,000 BC in the Middle East.[13][16]
The domestic cat was first classified as Felis catus by Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae published in 1758.[1][2] Because of modern phylogenetics, domestic cats are usually regarded as another subspecies of the wildcat, F. silvestris.[1][29][30] This has resulted in mixed usage of the terms, as the domestic cat can be called by its subspecies name, Felis silvestris catus.[1][29][30] Wildcats have also been referred to as various subspecies of F. catus,[30] but in 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature fixed the name for wildcats as F. silvestris.[31] The most common name in use for the domestic cat remains F. catus. Sometimes, the domestic cat has been called Felis domesticus[32] as proposed by German naturalist J. C. P. Erxleben in 1777,[33] but these are not valid taxonomic names and have been used only rarely in scientific literature.[34] A population of Transcaucasian black feral cats was once classified as Felis daemon (Satunin 1904) but now this population is considered to be a part of the domestic cat.[35]
All the cats in this genus share a common ancestor that is believed to have lived around 6–7 million years ago in the Near East (the Middle East).[36] The exact relationships within the Felidae are close but still uncertain,[37][38] e.g. the Chinese mountain cat is sometimes classified (under the name Felis silvestris bieti) as a subspecies of the wildcat, like the North African variety F. s. lybica.[29][37]
Ancient Egyptian sculpture of the cat goddess Bastet. The earliest evidence of felines as Egyptian deities comes from c. 3100 BC. In comparison to dogs, cats have not undergone major changes during the domestication process, as the form and behavior of the domestic cat is not radically different from those of wildcats and domestic cats are perfectly capable of surviving in the wild.[39][40] Fully domesticated house cats often interbreed with feral F. catus populations,[41] producing hybrids such as the Kellas cat. This limited evolution during domestication means that hybridisation can occur with many other felids, notably the Asian leopard cat.[42] Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have predisposed them for domestication as pets.[40] These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence.[43]:12–17 Several small felid species may have an inborn tendency towards tameness.[40]
Cats have either a mutualistic or commensal relationship with humans. Two main theories are given about how cats were domesticated. In one, people deliberately tamed cats in a process of artificial selection as they were useful predators of vermin.[44] This has been criticized as implausible, because the reward for such an effort may have been too little; cats generally do not carry out commands and although they do eat rodents, other species such as ferrets or terriers may be better at controlling these pests.[29] The alternative idea is that cats were simply tolerated by people and gradually diverged from their wild relatives through natural selection, as they adapted to hunting the vermin found around humans in towns and villages.[29]
Nomenclature and etymology The origin of the English word cat (Old English catt) and its counterparts in other Germanic languages (such as German Katze), descended from Proto-Germanic *kattōn-, is controversial. It has traditionally thought to be a borrowing from Late Latin cattus, 'domestic cat', from catta (used around 75 AD by Martial),[45][46] compare also Byzantine Greek κάττα, Portuguese and Spanish gato, French chat, Maltese qattus, Lithuanian katė, and Old Church Slavonic kotъ (kotka), among others.[47] The Late Latin word is generally thought to originate from an Afro-Asiatic language, but every proposed source word has presented problems. Many references refer to "Berber" (Kabyle) kaddîska, 'wildcat', and Nubian kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M. Lionel Bender suggesets the Nubian term is a loan from Arabic قِطَّة qiṭṭa.[48] Jean-Paul Savignac suggests the Latin word is from an Ancient Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau, 'tomcat', or its feminine form suffixed with -t,[49] but John Huehnergard says "the source [...] was clearly not Egyptian itself, where no analogous form is attested."[48] Huehnergard opines it is "equally likely that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic". Guus Kroonen also considers the word to be native to Germanic (due to morphological alternations) and Northern Europe, and suggests that it might ultimately be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gađfe, 'female stoat', and Hungarian hölgy, 'stoat'; from Proto-Uralic *käďwä, 'female (of a furred animal)'.[50] In any case, cat is a classic example of a Wanderwort.
An alternative word is English puss (extended as pussy and pussycat). Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegian pus, pusekatt. Similar forms exist in Lithuanian puižė and Irish puisín or puiscín. The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply arisen from a sound used to attract a cat.[51][52]
A group of cats can be referred to as a clowder or a glaring;[53] a male cat is called a tom or tomcat[54] (or a gib,[55] if neutered); an unspayed female is called a queen,[56] especially in a cat-breeding context; and a juvenile cat is referred to as a kitten. The male progenitor of a cat, especially a pedigreed cat, is its sire,[57] and its mother is its dam[58] In Early Modern English, the word kitten was interchangeable with the now obsolete word catling.[59]
A pedigreed cat is one whose ancestry is recorded by a cat fancier organization. A purebred (or pure-bred) cat is one whose ancestry contains only individuals of the same breed. Many pedigreed and especially purebred cats are exhibited as show cats. Cats of unrecorded, mixed ancestry are referred to as domestic short-haired or domestic long-haired cats (by coat type), or commonly as random-bred, moggies (chiefly British), or (using terms borrowed from dog breeding) mongrels or mutt-cats.
While the African wildcat is the ancestral subspecies from which domestic cats are descended, and wildcats and domestic cats can completely interbreed (being subspecies of the same species), several intermediate stages occur between domestic pet and pedigree cats on one hand and entirely wild animals on the other. The semi-feral cat, a mostly outdoor cat, is not owned by any one individual, but is generally friendly to people and may be fed by several households. Truly feral cats are associated with human habitation areas, foraging for food and sometimes intermittently fed by people, but are typically wary of human interaction.[41]
Biology Anatomy Main article: Cat anatomy
Diagram of the general anatomy of a male Domestic cats are similar in size to the other members of the genus Felis, typically weighing between 4 and 5 kg (9 and 10 lb).[37] Some breeds, such as the Maine Coon, can occasionally exceed 11 kg (24 lb). Conversely, very small cats, less than 2 kg (4 lb), have been reported.[60] The world record for the largest cat is 21 kg (50 lb).[61][self-published source] The smallest adult cat ever officially recorded weighed around 1 kg (2 lb).[61] Feral cats tend to be lighter, as they have more limited access to food than house cats. The Boston Cat Hospital weighted trapped feral cats, and found the average feral adult male to weigh 4 kg (9 lb), and average adult female 3 kg (7 lb).[62] Cats average about 23–25 cm (9–10 in) in height and 46 cm (18 in) in head/body length (males being larger than females), with tails averaging 30 cm (12 in) in length;[63] feral cats may be smaller on average.
Cats have seven cervical vertebrae, as do almost all mammals; 13 thoracic vertebrae (humans have 12); seven lumbar vertebrae (humans have five); three sacral vertebrae like most mammals (humans have five); and a variable number of caudal vertebrae in the tail (humans have only vestigial caudal vertebrae, fused into an internal coccyx).[64]:11 The extra lumbar and thoracic vertebrae account for the cat's spinal mobility and flexibility. Attached to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the pelvis.[64] :16 Unlike human arms, cat forelimbs are attached to the shoulder by free-floating clavicle bones which allow them to pass their body through any space into which they can fit their head.[65]
Cat skull The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful and specialized jaw.[66]:35 Within the jaw, cats have teeth adapted for killing prey and tearing meat. When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two long canine teeth, inserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing its spinal cord, causing irreversible paralysis and death.[67] Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae.[67] The premolar and first molar together compose the carnassial pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors. These are vital in feeding, since cats' small molars cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication.[66]:37 Although cats tend to have better teeth than most humans, with decay generally less likely because of a thicker protective layer of enamel, a less damaging saliva, less retention of food particles between teeth, and a diet mostly devoid of sugar, they are nonetheless subject to occasional tooth loss and infection.[68]
Cats, like dogs, are digitigrades. They walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg.[69] Cats are capable of walking very precisely because, like all felines, they directly register; that is, they place each hind paw (almost) directly in the print of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks. This also provides sure footing for their hind paws when they navigate rough terrain. Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" gait; that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side. This trait is shared with camels and giraffes. As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait changes to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals (and many other land animals, such as lizards): the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously.[70]
Like almost all members of the Felidae, cats have protractable and retractable claws.[71] In their normal, relaxed position, the claws are sheathed with the skin and fur around the paw's toe pads. This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey. The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet.[72] Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws. They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing, kneading, or for extra traction on soft surfaces. Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws.[73] The fifth front claw (the dewclaw) is proximal to the other claws. More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger". This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists, is the carpal pad, also found on the paws of big cats and dogs. It has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping. Some breeds of cats are prone to polydactyly (extra toes and claws).[73] These are particularly common along the northeast coast of North America.[74]
Physiology Cats are familiar and easily kept animals, and their physiology has been particularly well studied; it generally resembles those of other carnivorous mammals, but displays several unusual features probably attributable to cats' descent from desert-dwelling species.[32] For instance, cats are able to tolerate quite high temperatures: Humans generally start to feel uncomfortable when their skin temperature passes about 38 °C (100 °F), but cats show no discomfort until their skin reaches around 52 °C (126 °F),[66]:46 and can tolerate temperatures of up to 56 °C (133 °F) if they have access to water.[75]
Normal physiological values[76]:330 Body temperature 38.6 °C (101.5 °F) Heart rate 120–140 beats per minute Breathing rate 16–40 breaths per minute
Thermograph of various body parts of a cat Cats conserve heat by reducing the flow of blood to their skin and lose heat by evaporation through their mouths. Cats have minimal ability to sweat, with glands located primarily in their paw pads,[77] and pant for heat relief only at very high temperatures[78] (but may also pant when stressed). A cat's body temperature does not vary throughout the day; this is part of cats' general lack of circadian rhythms and may reflect their tendency to be active both during the day and at night.[79]:1 Cats' feces are comparatively dry and their urine is highly concentrated, both of which are adaptations to allow cats to retain as much water as possible.[32] Their kidneys are so efficient, they can survive on a diet consisting only of meat, with no additional water,[80] and can even rehydrate by drinking seawater.[81][79]:29While domestic cats are able to swim, they are generally reluctant to enter water as it quickly leads to exhaustion.[82]
Nutrition Cats are obligate carnivores: their physiology has evolved to efficiently process meat, and they have difficulty digesting plant matter.[32] In contrast to omnivores such as rats, which only require about 4% protein in their diet, about 20% of a cat's diet must be protein.[32] A cat's gastrointestinal tract is adapted to meat eating, being much shorter than that of omnivores and having low levels of several of the digestive enzymes needed to digest carbohydrates.[83] These traits severely limit the cat's ability to digest and use plant-derived nutrients, as well as certain fatty acids.[83] Despite the cat's meat-oriented physiology, several vegetarian or vegan cat foods have been marketed that are supplemented with chemically synthesized taurine and other nutrients, in attempts to produce a complete diet. However, some of these products still fail to provide all the nutrients cats require,[84] and diets containing no animal products pose the risk of causing severe nutritional deficiencies.[85] However, veterinarians in the United States have expressed concern that many domestic cats are overfed.[86]
Cats do eat grass occasionally. A proposed explanation is that cats use grass as a source of folic acid. Another is that it is used to supply dietary fiber, helping the cat defecate more easily and expel parasites and other harmful material through feces and vomit.[87]
Cats are unusually dependent on a constant supply of the amino acid arginine, and a diet lacking arginine causes marked weight loss and can be rapidly fatal.[88] Arginine is an essential additive in cat food because cats have low levels of the enzymes aminotransferase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate which are responsible for the synthesis of ornithine and citrulline in the small intestine.[89] Citrulline would typically go on to the kidneys to make arginine, but because cats have a deficiency in the enzymes that make it, citrulline is not produced in adequate quantities to make arginine. Arginine is essential in the urea cycle in order to convert the toxic component ammonia into urea that can then be excreted in the urine. Because of its essential role, deficiency in arginine results in a build up of toxic ammonia and leads to hyperammonemia.[89] The symptoms of hyperammonemia include lethargy, vomiting, ataxia, hyperesthesia and can be serious enough to induce death and coma in a matter of days if a cat is being fed an arginine-free diet. The quick onset of these symptoms is due to the fact that diets devoid in arginine will typically still contain all of the other amino acids, which will continue to be catabolized by the body, producing mass amounts of ammonia that very quickly build up with no way of being excreted.
Another unusual feature is that the cat cannot produce taurine,[note 1] with a deficiency in this nutrient causing macular degeneration, wherein the cat's retina slowly breaks down, causing irreversible blindness.[32] This is due to the hepatic activity of cystinesulfinic acid decarboxylase being low in cats.[91] This limits the ability of cats to biosynthesize the taurine they need from its precursor, the amino acid cysteine, which ultimately results in inadequate taurine production needed for normal function.[91] Deficiencies in taurine result in compensated function of feline cardiovascular and reproductive systems.[91] These abnormalities can also be accompanied by developmental issues in the central nervous system along with degeneration of the retina.[91]
In order to produce the essential vitamin niacin for use in the cat, tryptophan is needed for conversion purposes. However, due to a competing pathway with acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), niacin can become deficient and require supplementation.[92] This process occurs when an overactive enzyme, picolinic acid carboxylase, converts the vitamin B6 precursor picolinic acid into the alternate compound acetyl-CoA, instead of converting quinolinate into nictotinic acid mononlucleotide (niacin).[93] Niacin is required in cats as it supports enzyme function. If niacin is deficient in the diet, anorexia, weight loss and an increase in body temperature can result.[94]
Preformed vitamin A is required in the cat for retinal and reproductive health. Vitamin A is considered to be a fat-soluble vitamin and is seen as essential in a cat's diet. Normally, the conversion of beta-carotenes into vitamin A occurs in the intestine (more specifically the mucosal layer) of species, however cats lack the ability to undergo this process.[92] Both the kidney and liver are contributors to the use of vitamin A in the body of the majority of species while the cats liver does not produce the enzyme Beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase which converts the beta-carotene into retinol (vitamin A).[95] To summarize: cats do not have high levels of this enzyme leading to the cleavage and oxidation of carotenoids not taking place.[93]
Vitamin D3 is a dietary requirement for cats as they lack the ability to synthesize vitamin D3 from sunlight.[96] Cats obtain high levels of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholestrol delta 7 reductase which causes immediate conversion of vitamin D3 from sunlight to 7-dehydrocholesterol.[97] This fat soluble vitamin is required in cats for bone formation through the promotion of calcium retention, along with nerve and muscle control through absorption of calcium and phosphorus.[97]
Cats, like all mammals, need to get linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid, from their diet. Most mammals can convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, as well as the omega 3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) through the activity of enzymes, but this process is very limited in cats.[92] The Δ6-desaturase enzyme eventually converts linoleic acid, which is in its salt form linoleate, to arachidonate (salt form of arachidonic acid) in the liver, but this enzyme has very little activity in cats.[92] This means that arachidonic acid is an essential fatty acid for cats as they lack the ability to create required amounts of linoleic acid. Deficiency of arachidonic acid in cats is related to problems in growth, can cause injury and inflammation to skin (e.g. around the mouth) decreased platelet aggregation, fatty liver, increase in birth defects of kittens whose queens were deficient during pregnancy, and reproductive failure in queens.[92] Arachidonic acid can also be metabolized to eicosanoids that create inflammatory responses which are needed to stimulate proper growth and repair mechanisms in the cat.[98]
Cat food § Nutrient chart provides a list of the many nutrients cats require as well as the use of the nutrients in the body and the effects of the deficiency.
Senses Main article: Cat senses
Reflection of camera flash from the tapetum lucidum Cats have excellent night vision and can see at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision.[66]:43 This is partly the result of cat eyes having a tapetum lucidum, which reflects any light that passes through the retina back into the eye, thereby increasing the eye's sensitivity to dim light.[99] Another adaptation to dim light is the large pupils of cats' eyes. Unlike some big cats, such as tigers, domestic cats have slit pupils.[100] These slit pupils can focus bright light without chromatic aberration, and are needed since the domestic cat's pupils are much larger, relative to their eyes, than the pupils of the big cats.[100] At low light levels, a cat's pupils will expand to cover most of the exposed surface of its eyes.[101] However, domestic cats have rather poor color vision and (like most nonprimate mammals) have only two types of cones, optimized for sensitivity to blue and yellowish green; they have limited ability to distinguish between red and green.[102] A 1993 paper reported a response to middle wavelengths from a system other than the rods which might be due to a third type of cone. However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true trichromatic vision.[103]
Cats have excellent hearing and can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies. They can hear higher-pitched sounds than either dogs or humans, detecting frequencies from 55 Hz to 79,000 Hz, a range of 10.5 octaves, while humans and dogs both have ranges of about 9 octaves.[104][105] Cats can hear ultrasound, which is important in hunting[106] because many species of rodents make ultrasonic calls.[107] However, they do not communicate using ultrasound like rodents do. Cats' hearing is also sensitive and among the best of any mammal,[104] being most acute in the range of 500 Hz to 32 kHz.[108] This sensitivity is further enhanced by the cat's large movable outer ears (their pinnae), which both amplify sounds and help detect the direction of a noise.[106]
Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed olfactory bulb and a large surface of olfactory mucosa, about 5.8 cm2 (0.90 in2) in area, which is about twice that of humans.[109] Cats are sensitive to pheromones such as 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol,[110] which they use to communicate through urine spraying and marking with scent glands.[111] Many cats also respond strongly to plants that contain nepetalactone, especially catnip, as they can detect that substance at less than one part per billion.[112] About 70–80% of cats are affected by nepetalactone.[113] This response is also produced by other plants, such as silver vine (Actinidia polygama) and the herb valerian; it may be caused by the smell of these plants mimicking a pheromone and stimulating cats' social or sexual behaviors.[114]
Cats have relatively few taste buds compared to humans (470 or so versus more than 9,000 on the human tongue).[115] Domestic and wild cats share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet taste buds from binding to sugary molecules, leaving them with no ability to taste sweetness.[116] Their taste buds instead respond to acids, amino acids like protein, and bitter tastes.[117] Cats and many other animals have a Jacobson's organ in their mouths that is used in the behavioral process of flehmening. It allows them to sense certain aromas in a way that humans cannot. Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 38 °C (100 °F) which is similar to that of a fresh kill and routinely rejecting food presented cold or refrigerated (which would signal to the cat that the "prey" item is long dead and therefore possibly toxic or decomposing).[115]
The whiskers of a cat are highly sensitive to touch. To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable whiskers (vibrissae) over their body, especially their faces. These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective blink reflexes to protect the eyes from damage.[66]:47
File:BIOASTRONAUTICS RESEARCH Gov.archives.arc.68700.ogv Comparison of cat righting reflexes in gravity versus zero gravity Most breeds of cat have a noted fondness for settling in high places, or perching. In the wild, a higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats may strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch, as does a leopard.[118] Another possible explanation is that height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its territory. During a fall from a high place, a cat can reflexively twist its body and right itself using its acute sense of balance and flexibility.[119] This is known as the cat righting reflex. An individual cat always rights itself in the same way, provided it has the time to do so, during a fall. The height required for this to occur is around 90 cm (3.0 ft). Cats without a tail (e.g. many specimens of the Manx and Cymric breeds) also have this ability, since a cat mostly relies on leg movement and conservation of angular momentum to set up for landing, and the tail is little used for this feat.[120] Their excellent sense of balance allows cats to move with great stability. A cat falling from heights of up to 3 meters can right itself and land on its paws.[121]
Health Main articles: Cat health and Aging in cats The average lifespan of pet cats has risen in recent years. In the early 1980s, it was about seven years,[122]:33[123] rising to 9.4 years in 1995[122]:33 and 15.1 years in 2018.[124] However, cats have been reported as surviving into their 30s,[125] with the oldest known cat, Creme Puff, dying at a verified age of 38.[126]
Spaying or neutering increases life expectancy: one study found neutered male cats live twice as long as intact males, while spayed female cats live 62% longer than intact females.[122]:35 Having a cat neutered confers health benefits, because castrated males cannot develop testicular cancer, spayed females cannot develop uterine or ovarian cancer, and both have a reduced risk of mammary cancer.[127]
Despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of neutered feral cats in managed colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats.[128]:45[129]:1358 [130][131][132][133]
Diseases Main article: Feline diseases A wide range of health problems may affect cats, including infectious diseases, parasites, injuries, and chronic disease. Vaccinations are available for many of these diseases, and domestic cats are regularly given treatments to eliminate parasites such as worms and fleas.[134]
Genetics Main article: Cat genetics The domesticated cat and its closest wild ancestor are both diploid organisms that possess 38 chromosomes[135] and roughly 20,000 genes.[136] About 250 heritable genetic disorders have been identified in cats, many similar to human inborn errors.[137] The high level of similarity among the metabolism of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using genetic tests that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats as animal models in the study of the human diseases.[138][139]
Behavior See also: Cat behavior and Cat intelligence A black-and-white cat on a fence A cat on a fence Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night.[140][141] The timing of cats' activity is quite flexible and varied, which means house cats may be more active in the morning and evening, as a response to greater human activity at these times.[142] Although they spend the majority of their time in the vicinity of their home, housecats can range many hundreds of meters from this central point, and are known to establish territories that vary considerably in size, in one study ranging from 7 to 28 hectares (17–69 acres).[141]
Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older. The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average. Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours. The term "cat nap" for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep (lightly) for a brief period. While asleep, cats experience short periods of rapid eye movement sleep often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are dreaming.[143]
Sociability
Social grooming Although wildcats are solitary, the social behavior of domestic cats is much more variable and ranges from widely dispersed individuals to feral cat colonies that gather around a food source, based on groups of co-operating females.[144][145] Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others.[34] Each cat in a colony holds a distinct territory, with sexually active males having the largest territories, which are about 10 times larger than those of female cats and may overlap with several females' territories.[111] These territories are marked by urine spraying, by rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation.[111] Between these territories are neutral areas where cats watch and greet one another without territorial conflicts. Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and growling, and if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks. Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or a pack mentality, and always hunt alone.[146]
Cat with an Alaskan Malamute dog However, some pet cats are poorly socialized. In particular, older cats may show aggressiveness towards newly arrived kittens, which may include biting and scratching; this type of behavior is known as feline asocial aggression.[147]
Though cats and dogs are often characterized as natural enemies, they can live together if correctly socialized.[148]
Life in proximity to humans and other domestic animals has led to a symbiotic social adaptation in cats, and cats may express great affection toward humans or other animals. Ethologically, the human keeper of a cat may function as a sort of surrogate for the cat's mother,[149] and adult housecats live their lives in a kind of extended kittenhood,[150] a form of behavioral neoteny. The high-pitched sounds housecats make to solicit food may mimic the cries of a hungry human infant, making them particularly hard for humans to ignore.[151]
Domestic cats' scent rubbing behavior towards humans or other cats is thought to be a feline means for social bonding.[152]
Communication Main article: Cat communication Domestic cats use many vocalizations for communication, including purring, trilling, hissing, growling/snarling, grunting, and several different forms of meowing.[7] (By contrast, feral cats are generally silent.)[153]:208 Their types of body language, including position of ears and tail, relaxation of the whole body, and kneading of the paws, are all indicators of mood. The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats;[154][155] for example, a raised tail acts as a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility. Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group's social hierarchy, with dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate animals.[155] Nose-to-nose touching is also a common greeting and may be followed by social grooming, which is solicited by one of the cats raising and tilting its head.[145]
Purring may have developed as an evolutionary advantage as a signalling mechanism of reassurance between mother cats and nursing kittens. Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed,[156][157] or eating. The mechanism by which cats purr is elusive. The cat has no unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the sound.[158] It was, until recent times, believed that only the cats of the Felis genus could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tiger, lion, jaguar, and leopard) also produce non-continuous sounds, called chuffs, similar to purring, but only when exhaling.[159]
Grooming
The hooked papillae on a cat's tongue act like a hairbrush to help clean and detangle fur. File:Housecat Grooming Itself.webm A tabby housecat uses its brush-like tongue to groom itself, licking its fur to straighten it. Cats are known for spending considerable amounts of time licking their coat to keep it clean.[160] The cat's tongue has backwards-facing spines about 500 μm long, which are called papillae. These contain keratin which makes them rigid[161] so the papillae act like a hairbrush. Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate hairballs of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming. These clumps of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long. Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through the gut, as well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush.[160]
Fighting Among domestic cats, males are more likely to fight than females.[162] Among feral cats, the most common reason for cat fighting is competition between two males to mate with a female. In such cases, most fights are won by the heavier male.[163] Another common reason for fighting in domestic cats is the difficulty of establishing territories within a small home.[162] Female cats also fight over territory or to defend their kittens. Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to sex hormones.[164]
An arched back, raised fur and an open-mouthed hiss can all be signs of aggression in a domestic cat. When cats become aggressive, they try to make themselves appear larger and more threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, turning sideways and hissing or spitting.[154] Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoid damage to the inner ear and potentially listen for any changes behind them while focused forward. They may also vocalize loudly and bare their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent. Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful slaps to the face and body with the forepaws as well as bites. Cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's belly with their powerful hind legs.[165]
Serious damage is rare, as the fights are usually short in duration, with the loser running away with little more than a few scratches to the face and ears. However, fights for mating rights are typically more severe and injuries may include deep puncture wounds and lacerations. Normally, serious injuries from fighting are limited to infections of scratches and bites, though these can occasionally kill cats if untreated. In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus.[166] Sexually active males are usually involved in many fights during their lives, and often have decidedly battered faces with obvious scars and cuts to their ears and nose.[167]
Hunting and feeding
A cat that is playing with a caught mouse. Cats play with their prey to weaken or exhaust them before making a kill.
A domestic cat with its prey Cats hunt small prey, primarily birds and rodents,[168] and are often used as a form of pest control.[169][170] Domestic cats are a major predator of wildlife in the United States, killing an estimated 1.4 to 3.7 billion birds and 6.9 to 20.7 billion mammals annually.[171][172] The bulk of predation in the United States is done by 80 million feral and stray cats. Effective measures to reduce this population are elusive, meeting opposition from cat enthusiasts.[171][172] In the case of free-ranging pets, equipping cats with bells and not letting them out at night will reduce wildlife predation.[168]
Free-fed feral cats and house cats tend to consume many small meals in a single day, although the frequency and size of meals varies between individuals.[146] Cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking prey actively, or waiting in ambush until an animal comes close enough to be captured.[173] Although it is not certain, the strategy used may depend on the prey species in the area, with cats waiting in ambush outside burrows, but tending to actively stalk birds.[174]:153
Perhaps the best known element of cats' hunting behavior, which is commonly misunderstood and often appalls cat owners because it looks like torture, is that cats often appear to "play" with prey by releasing it after capture. This behavior is due to an instinctive imperative to ensure that the prey is weak enough to be killed without endangering the cat.[175] This behavior is referred to in the idiom "cat-and-mouse game" or simply "cat and mouse".
Another poorly understood element of cat hunting behavior is the presentation of prey to human guardians. Ethologist Paul Leyhausen proposed that cats adopt humans into their social group and share excess kill with others in the group according to the dominance hierarchy, in which humans are reacted to as if they are at, or near, the top.[176] Anthropologist and zoologist Desmond Morris, in his 1986 book Catwatching, suggests, when cats bring home mice or birds, they are attempting to teach their human to hunt, or trying to help their human as if feeding "an elderly cat, or an inept kitten".[177][178] Morris's hypothesis is inconsistent with the fact that male cats also bring home prey, despite males having negligible involvement with raising kittens.[174]:153
Domestic cats select food based on its temperature, smell and texture; they dislike chilled foods and respond most strongly to moist foods rich in amino acids, which are similar to meat.[85][146] Cats may reject novel flavors (a response termed neophobia) and learn quickly to avoid foods that have tasted unpleasant in the past.[146] They may also avoid sugary foods and milk. Most adult cats are lactose intolerant; the sugars in milk are not easily digested and may cause soft stools or diarrhea.[146][179] They can also develop odd eating habits. Some cats like to eat or chew on other things, most commonly wool, but also plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or even coal. This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten.[180][181]
Though cats usually prey on animals less than half their size, a feral cat in Australia has been photographed killing an adult pademelon of around the cat's weight at 4 kg (8.8 lb).[182]
Since cats lack sufficient lips to create suction,[183] they use a lapping method with the tongue to draw liquid upwards into their mouths. Lapping at a rate of four times a second, the cat touches the smooth tip of its tongue to the surface of the water, and quickly retracts it like a corkscrew, drawing water upwards.[184]
Running A veterinarian and columnist for Mercola Healthy Pets, Karen Shaw Becker, has compiled a list of the fastest and most athletic cat breeds. First is the Egyptian Mau, which can clock up to 30 miles per hour, faster than any other domestic cat breed in the world.[185][unreliable source] In descending order, Becker lists the other swift domestic cats: the Abyssinian cat, the Somali cat, the Bengal cat, the Savannah cat, the Manx cat ("He can jump and accelerate through the house like there's no tomorrow. Watch for his sharp turns and quick stops – you'll think he's a mini sports car in the shape of a cat."), the Siamese cat, the Ocicat, and the Oriental Shorthair.
The average house cat can outspeed the average house dog (excluding those born to run and race, such as the greyhound and the cheetah), but they excel at sprinting, not at long-distance running.
Play Main article: Cat play and toys File:Play fight between cats.webmhd.webm Play fight between kittens, age 14 weeks Domestic cats, especially young kittens, are known for their love of play. This behavior mimics hunting and is important in helping kittens learn to stalk, capture, and kill prey.[186] Cats also engage in play fighting, with each other and with humans. This behavior may be a way for cats to practice the skills needed for real combat, and might also reduce any fear they associate with launching attacks on other animals.[187]
Owing to the close similarity between play and hunting, cats prefer to play with objects that resemble prey, such as small furry toys that move rapidly, but rapidly lose interest (they become habituated) in a toy they have played with before.[188] Cats also tend to play with toys more when they are hungry.[189] String is often used as a toy, but if it is eaten, it can become caught at the base of the cat's tongue and then move into the intestines, a medical emergency which can cause serious illness, even death.[190] Owing to the risks posed by cats eating string, it is sometimes replaced with a laser pointer's dot, which cats may chase.[191]
Reproduction See also: Kitten
When cats mate, the tomcat (male) bites the scruff of the female's neck as she assumes a position conducive to mating known as lordosis behavior.
Radiography of a pregnant cat (about one month and a half) Female cats are seasonally polyestrous, which means they may have many periods of heat over the course of a year, the season beginning in spring and ending in late autumn. Heat periods occur about every two weeks and last about 4 to 7 days.[192] Multiple males will be attracted to a female in heat. The males will fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate. At first, the female rejects the male, but eventually the female allows the male to mate. The female utters a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her because a male cat's penis has a band of about 120–150 backwards-pointing penile spines, which are about 1 mm long; upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which acts to induce ovulation. This act also occurs to clear the vagina of other sperm in the context of a second (or more) mating, thus giving the later males a larger chance of conception.[193]
After mating, the female washes her vulva thoroughly. If a male attempts to mate with her at this point, the female will attack him. After about 20 to 30 minutes, once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat.[192]
Because ovulation is not always triggered by a single mating, females may not be impregnated by the first male with which they mate.[194] Furthermore, cats are superfecund; that is, a female may mate with more than one male when she is in heat, with the result that different kittens in a litter may have different fathers.[192]
A newborn kitten At 124 hours after conception, the morula forms. At 148 hours, early blastocysts form. At 10–12 days, implantation occurs.[195][196]
The gestation period for cats is between 64 and 67 days, with an average of 66 days.[197] The size of a litter usually is three to five kittens, with the first litter usually smaller than subsequent litters. Kittens are weaned between six and seven weeks old, and cats normally reach sexual maturity at 5–10 months (females) and to 5–7 months (males), although this can vary depending on breed.[192] Females can have two to three litters per year, so may produce up to 150 kittens in their breeding span of around ten years.[192]
Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks of age,[198] when they are ready to leave their mother. They can be surgically sterilized (spayed or castrated) as early as 7 weeks to limit unwanted reproduction.[199] This surgery also prevents undesirable sex-related behavior, such as aggression, territory marking (spraying urine) in males and yowling (calling) in females. Traditionally, this surgery was performed at around six to nine months of age, but it is increasingly being performed before puberty, at about three to six months.[200] In the US, about 80% of household cats are neutered.[201]
Ecology Habitats
A cat in snowy weather Cats are a cosmopolitan species and are found across much of the world.[39] Geneticist Stephen James O'Brien, of the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, Maryland, remarked on how successful cats have been in evolutionary terms: "Cats are one of evolution's most charismatic creatures. They can live on the highest mountains and in the hottest deserts."[202] They are extremely adaptable and are now present on all continents except Antarctica, and on 118 of the 131 main groups of islands—even on isolated islands such as the Kerguelen Islands.[203][204]
Feral cats can live in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands.[205] Their habitats even include small oceanic islands with no human inhabitants.[206] Further, the close relatives of domestic cats, the African wildcat (Felis silvestris lybica) and the Arabian sand cat (Felis margarita) both inhabit desert environments,[29] and domestic cats still show similar adaptations and behaviors.[32] The cat's ability to thrive in almost any terrestrial habitat has led to its designation as one of the world's worst invasive species.[207]
As domestic cats are little altered from wildcats, they can readily interbreed. This hybridization poses a danger to the genetic distinctiveness of some wildcat populations, particularly in Scotland and Hungary and possibly also the Iberian Peninsula.[42]
Feral cats Main article: Feral cat
Feral farm cat Feral cats are domestic cats that were born in or have reverted to a wild state. They are unfamiliar with and wary of humans and roam freely in urban and rural areas.[9] The numbers of feral cats is not known, but estimates of the US feral population range from 25 to 60 million.[9] Feral cats may live alone, but most are found in large colonies, which occupy a specific territory and are usually associated with a source of food.[208] Famous feral cat colonies are found in Rome around the Colosseum and Forum Romanum, with cats at some of these sites being fed and given medical attention by volunteers.[209]
Public attitudes towards feral cats vary widely, ranging from seeing them as free-ranging pets, to regarding them as vermin.[210] One common approach to reducing the feral cat population is termed 'trap-neuter-return', where the cats are trapped, neutered, immunized against diseases such as rabies and the feline Panleukopenia and Leukemia viruses, and then released.[211] Before releasing them back into their feral colonies, the attending veterinarian often nips the tip off one ear to mark it as neutered and inoculated, since these cats may be trapped again. Volunteers continue to feed and give care to these cats throughout their lives. Given this support, their lifespans are increased, and behavior and nuisance problems caused by competition for food are reduced.[208]
Impact on prey species
Carrying half of a rabbit To date, little scientific data is available to assess the impact of cat predation on prey populations outside of agricultural situations. Even well-fed domestic cats may hunt and kill, mainly catching small mammals, but also birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates.[168][212] Hunting by domestic cats may be contributing to the decline in the numbers of birds in urban areas, although the importance of this effect remains controversial.[213] In the wild, the introduction of feral cats during human settlement can threaten native species with extinction.[206] In many cases, controlling or eliminating the populations of non-native cats can produce a rapid recovery in native animals.[214] However, the ecological role of introduced cats can be more complicated. For example, cats can control the numbers of rats, which also prey on birds' eggs and young, so a cat population can protect an endangered bird species by suppressing mesopredators.[215]
In isolated landmasses, such as Australasia, there are often no other native, medium-sized quadrupedal predators (including other feline species); this tends to exacerbate the impact of feral cats on small native animals.[216] Native species such as the New Zealand kakapo and the Australian bettong, for example, tend to be more ecologically vulnerable and behaviorally "naive", when faced with predation by cats.[217] Feral cats have had a major impact on these native species and have played a leading role in the endangerment and extinction of many animals.[218]
Even in places with ancient and numerous cat populations, such as Western Europe, cats appear to be growing in number and independently of their environments' carrying capacity (such as the numbers of prey available).[219][220] This may be explained, at least in part, by an abundance of food, from sources including feeding by pet owners and scavenging. For instance, research in Britain suggests that a high proportion of cats hunt only "recreationally"[220], and in South Sweden, where research in 1982 found that the population density of cats was as high as 2,000 per square kilometre (5,200/sq mi).[219]
In agricultural settings, cats can be effective at keeping mouse and rat populations low, but only if rodent harborage locations are kept under control.[221][222] While cats are effective at preventing rodent population explosions, they are not effective for eliminating pre-existing severe infestations.[223]
Impact on birds
A black cat eating a house sparrow The domestic cat is a significant predator of birds. UK assessments indicate they may be accountable for an estimated 64.8 million bird deaths each year.[168] A 2012 study suggests feral cats may kill several billion birds each year in the United States.[224] Certain species appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of house sparrow mortality is linked to the domestic cat.[225] In the recovery of ringed robins (Erithacus rubecula) and dunnocks (Prunella modularis), 31% of deaths were a result of cat predation.[226] In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as coyotes which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as opossums and raccoons on bird numbers and variety.[227] The proposal that cat populations will increase when the numbers of these top predators decline is called the mesopredator release hypothesis.
On islands, birds can contribute as much as 60% of a cat's diet.[228] In nearly all cases, however, the cat cannot be identified as the sole cause for reducing the numbers of island birds, and in some instances, eradication of cats has caused a 'mesopredator release' effect;[229] where the suppression of top carnivores creates an abundance of smaller predators that cause a severe decline in their shared prey. Domestic cats are, however, known to be a contributing factor to the decline of many species, a factor that has ultimately led, in some cases, to extinction. The South Island piopio, Chatham rail,[226] the New Zealand merganser,[230] and the common diving petrel[231] are a few from a long list, with the most extreme case being the flightless Lyall's wren, which was driven to extinction only a few years after its discovery.[232][233]
Some of the same factors that have promoted adaptive radiation of island avifauna over evolutionary time appear to promote vulnerability to non-native species in modern time. The susceptibility of many island birds is undoubtedly due to evolution in the absence of mainland predators, competitors, diseases, and parasites, in addition to lower reproductive rates and extended incubation periods.[234] The loss of flight, or reduced flying ability is also characteristic of many island endemics.[235] These biological aspects have increased vulnerability to extinction in the presence of introduced species, such as the domestic cat.[236] Equally, behavioral traits exhibited by island species, such as "predatory naivety"[237] and ground-nesting,[234] have also contributed to their susceptibility.
Interaction with humans Main article: Human interaction with cats
Cats and people Cats are common pets throughout the world, and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million.[13] Although cat guardianship has commonly been associated with women,[238] a 2007 Gallup poll reported that men and women in the United States of America were equally likely to own a cat.[239]
As well as being kept as pets, cats are also used in the international fur[240] and leather industries for making coats, hats, blankets, and stuffed toys;[241] and shoes, gloves, and musical instruments respectively[242] (about 24 cats are needed to make a cat-fur coat).[243] This use has been outlawed in the United States, Australia, and the European Union.[244] Cat pelts have been used for superstitious purposes as part of the practise of witchcraft,[245] and are still made into blankets in Switzerland as folk remedies believed to help rheumatism.[246] In the Western intellectual tradition, the idea of cats as everyday objects have served to illustrate problems of quantum mechanics in the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment.
A few attempts to build a cat census have been made over the years, both through associations or national and international organizations (such as the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies's one[247]) and over the Internet,[248][249] but such a task does not seem simple to achieve. General estimates for the global population of domestic cats range widely from anywhere between 200 million to 600 million.[250][251][252][253][254][255]
Cat show Main article: Cat show A cat show is a judged event where the owners of cats compete to win titles in various cat registering organizations by entering their cats to be judged after a breed standard.[256][257] Both pedigreed and companion (or moggy) cats are admissible, although the rules differ from organization to organization. Cats are compared to a breed standard,[258] and the owners of those judged to be closest to it are awarded a prize. Moggies are judged based on their temperament. Often, at the end of the year, all of the points accrued at various shows are added up and more national and regional titles are awarded.
Cat café Main article: Cat café A cat café is a theme café whose attraction is cats that can be watched and played with.[259] Patrons pay a cover fee, generally hourly and thus cat cafés can be seen as a form of supervised indoor pet rental.
Ailurophobia Main article: Ailurophobia Ailurophobia is a human phobia of cats; however, the term is often associated with humans that have a hatred of cats.[260]
Cat bites Main article: Cat bite Cats may bite humans when provoked, during play or when aggressive. Complications from cat bites can develop.[261] A cat bite differs from the bites of other pets. This is because the teeth of a cat are sharp and pointed causing deep punctures. Skin usually closes rapidly over the bite and traps microorganisms that cause infection.[262][261]
Infections transmitted from cats to humans Main article: Feline zoonosis Cats can be infected or infested with viruses, bacteria, fungus, protozoans, arthropods or worms that can transmit diseases to humans.[263] In some cases, the cat exhibits no symptoms of the disease,[264] However, the same disease can then become evident in a human. The likelihood that a person will become diseased depends on the age and immune status of the person. Humans who have cats living in their home or in close association are more likely to become infected, however, those who do not keep cats as pets might also acquire infections from cat feces and parasites exiting the cat's body.[263][265] Some of the infections of most concern include salmonella, cat scratch disease and toxoplasmosis.[264]
History and mythology Main articles: Cultural depictions of cats and Cats in ancient Egypt
The ancient Egyptians mummified dead cats out of respect in the same way that they mummified people.[266]
Ancient Roman mosaic of a cat killing a partridge from the House of the Faun in Pompeii
A 19th-century drawing of a tabby cat Traditionally, historians tended to think ancient Egypt was the site of cat domestication, owing to the clear depictions of house cats in Egyptian paintings about 3,600 years old.[29] However, in 2004, a Neolithic grave excavated in Shillourokambos, Cyprus, contained the skeletons, laid close to one another, of both a human and a cat. The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, pushing back the earliest known feline–human association significantly.[16][267][268] The cat specimen is large and closely resembles the African wildcat, rather than present-day domestic cats. This discovery, combined with genetic studies, suggests cats were probably domesticated in the Middle East, in the Fertile Crescent around the time of the development of agriculture, and then were brought to Cyprus and Egypt.[15][20] Direct evidence for the domestication of cats 5,300 years ago in Quanhucun, China has been published by archaeologists and paleontologists from the University of Washington and Chinese Academy of Sciences. The cats are believed to have been attracted to the village by rodents, which in turn were attracted by grain cultivated and stored by humans.[269]
In ancient Egypt, cats were sacred animals, with the goddess Bastet often depicted in cat form, sometimes taking on the war-like aspect of a lioness.[270]:220 Killing a cat was absolutely forbidden[266] and the Greek historian Herodotus reports that, whenever a household cat died, the entire family would mourn and shave their eyebrows.[266] Families took their dead cats to the sacred city of Bubastis,[266] where they were embalmed and buried in sacred repositories.[266] Domestic cats were probably first introduced to Greece and southern Italy in the fifth century BC by the Phoenicians.[271] The earliest unmistakable evidence of the Greeks having domestic cats comes from two coins from Magna Graecia dating to the mid-fifth century BC showing Iokastos and Phalanthos, the legendary founders of Rhegion and Taras respectively, playing with their pet cats.[272]:57–58[273]
Housecats seem to have been extremely rare among the ancient Greeks and Romans;[273] Herodotus expressed astonishment at the domestic cats in Egypt, because he had only ever seen wildcats.[273] Even during later times, weasels were far more commonly kept as pets[273] and weasels, not cats, were seen as the ideal rodent-killers.[273] The usual ancient Greek word for "cat" was ailouros, meaning "thing with the waving tail",[272]:57[273] but this word could also be applied to any of the "various long-tailed carnivores kept for catching mice".[273] Cats are rarely mentioned in ancient Greek literature,[273] but Aristotle does remark in his History of Animals that "female cats are naturally lecherous."[272]:74[273] The Greeks later syncretized their own goddess Artemis with the Egyptian goddess Bastet, adopting Bastet's associations with cats and ascribing them to Artemis.[272]:77–79 In Ovid's Metamorphoses, when the gods flee to Egypt and take animal forms, the goddess Diana (the Roman equivalent of Artemis) turns into a cat.[272]:79 Cats eventually displaced ferrets as the pest control of choice because they were more pleasant to have around the house and were more enthusiastic hunters of mice.[274] During the Middle Ages, many of Artemis's associations with cats were grafted onto the Virgin Mary.[274] Cats are often shown in icons of Annunciation and of the Holy Family[274] and, according to Italian folklore, on the same night that Mary gave birth to Jesus, a virgin cat in Bethlehem gave birth to a kitten.[274] Domestic cats were spread throughout much of the rest of the world during the Age of Discovery, as ships' cats were carried on sailing ships to control shipboard rodents and as good-luck charms.[270]:223
Several ancient religions believed cats are exalted souls, companions or guides for humans, that are all-knowing but mute so they cannot influence decisions made by humans. In Japan, the maneki neko cat is a symbol of good fortune.[275] In Norse mythology, Freyja, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, is depicted as riding a chariot drawn by cats.[276] In Jewish legend, the first cat was living in the house of the first man Adam as a pet that got rid of mice.[277] The cat was once partnering with the first dog before the latter broke an oath they had made which resulted in enmity between the descendants of these two animals.[277] It is also written that neither cats nor foxes are represented in the water, while every other animal has an incarnation species in the water.[277] Although no species are sacred in Islam, cats are revered by Muslims. Some Western writers have stated Muhammad had a favorite cat, Muezza.[278] He is reported to have loved cats so much, "he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it".[279] The story has no origin in early Muslim writers, and seems to confuse a story of a later Sufi saint, Ahmed ar-Rifa'i, centuries after Muhammad.[280] One of the companions of Muhammad was known as "Abu Hurayrah" (Father of the Kitten), in reference to his documented affection to cats.[281]
Superstitions and cat burning
Some cultures are superstitious about black cats, ascribing either good or bad luck to them. Many cultures have negative superstitions about cats. An example would be the belief that a black cat "crossing one's path" leads to bad luck, or that cats are witches' familiars used to augment a witch's powers and skills. The killing of cats in Medieval Ypres, Belgium, is commemorated in the innocuous present-day Kattenstoet (cat parade).[282] In medieval France, cats would be burnt alive as a form of entertainment. According to Norman Davies, the assembled people "shrieked with laughter as the animals, howling with pain, were singed, roasted, and finally carbonized".[283]
"It was the custom to burn a basket, barrel, or sack full of live cats, which was hung from a tall mast in the midst of the bonfire; sometimes a fox was burned. The people collected the embers and ashes of the fire and took them home, believing that they brought good luck. The French kings often witnessed these spectacles and even lit the bonfire with their own hands. In 1648 Louis XIV, crowned with a wreath of roses and carrying a bunch of roses in his hand, kindled the fire, danced at it and partook of the banquet afterwards in the town hall. But this was the last occasion when a monarch presided at the midsummer bonfire in Paris. At Metz midsummer fires were lighted with great pomp on the esplanade, and a dozen cats, enclosed in wicker cages, were burned alive in them, to the amusement of the people. Similarly at Gap, in the department of the Hautes-Alpes, cats used to be roasted over the midsummer bonfire."[284]
According to a myth in many cultures, cats have multiple lives. In many countries, they are believed to have nine lives, but in Italy, Germany, Greece, Brazil and some Spanish-speaking regions, they are said to have seven lives,[285][286] while in Turkish and Arabic traditions, the number of lives is six.[287] The myth is attributed to the natural suppleness and swiftness cats exhibit to escape life-threatening situations. Also lending credence to this myth is the fact that falling cats often land on their feet, using an instinctive righting reflex to twist their bodies around. Nonetheless, cats can still be injured or killed by a high fall.[288]
See also
Book: Cat icon Cats portal icon Mammals portal Aging in cats Animal testing on cats Animal track Cancer in cats Cat and mouse (cat-and-mouse game) Cat burning Cat intelligence Cat lady Cats and the Internet Dog–cat relationship Dried cat List of cat breeds List of cat documentaries List of cats List of fictional cats and felines Pet door including cat flap Pet first aid Popular cat names Trap-neuter-return Cats by location Cats in ancient Egypt Cats in Australia Cats in New Zealand Cats in the United States Notes Taurine is sometimes called an amino acid, and indeed is an acid containing an amino group, it is not an amino acid in the usual biochemical meaning of the term, which refers to compounds containing both an amino and a carboxyl group.[90] References Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Species Felis catus". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 534–535. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema naturae (in Latin). 1 (10th ed.). Stockholm: Lars Salvius. p. 42. Archived from the original on 31 August 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2017 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library. See Opinion 2027 "ITIS Standard Report Page: Felis catus domestica". ITIS Online Database. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "ITIS Standard Report Page: Felis catus". ITIS Online Database. Reston, Virginia: Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 2011. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2011. Housecat. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2010. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2010 – via Yahoo.com. Moelk, Mildred (April 1944). "Vocalizing in the House-cat; A Phonetic and Functional Study". The American Journal of Psychology. 57 (2): 184–205. doi:10.2307/1416947. JSTOR 1416947. Tucker, Abigail (2016). The Lion in the Living Room: How House Cats Tamed Us and Took Over the World. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 1476738238. Archived from the original on 14 November 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016. Rochlitz, Irene (2007). The Welfare of Cats. "Animal Welfare" series. Berlin: Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 141–175. ISBN 1-4020-6143-9. Impact of Feral Cats in Australia Archived 20 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine. "Cats Responsible For Driving Many Species To Extinction". IFLScience. Retrieved 6 June 2018. Winters, L.; Walter, G. E. (May 2006). "Impacts of Feral and Free-ranging Cats on Bird Species of Conservation Concern" (PDF). ABCBirds.org. American Bird Conservancy. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 April 2015. Wade, Nicholas (2007). "Study Traces Cat's Ancestry to Middle East". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved 2 April 2008. Vigne, J. D.; Guilaine, J.; Debue, K.; Haye, L.; Gérard, P. (2004). "Early taming of the cat in Cyprus". Science. 304 (5668): 259. doi:10.1126/science.1095335. PMID 15073370. Driscoll, C. A.; Menotti-Raymond, M.; Roca, A. L.; Hupe, K.; Johnson, W. E.; Geffen, E.; Harley, E. H.; Delibes, M.; Pontier, D.; Kitchener, A. C.; Yamaguchi, N.; O'Brien, S. J.; Macdonald, D. W. (2007). "The Near Eastern Origin of Cat Domestication". Science. 317 (5837): 519–523. Bibcode:2007Sci...317..519D. doi:10.1126/science.1139518. ISSN 0036-8075. PMC 5612713 Freely accessible. PMID 17600185. "Oldest Known Pet Cat? 9,500-year-old Burial Found on Cyprus". National Geographic News. National Geographic Society. 2004. Archived from the original on 3 March 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2007. Vigne, J.-D.; Evin, A.; Cucchi, T.; Dai, L.; Yu, C.; Hu, S.; Soulages, N.; Wang, W.; Sun, Z. (2016). "Earliest 'Domestic' Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis)". PLOS One. 11 (1): e0147295. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1147295V. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147295. PMC 4723238 Freely accessible. PMID 26799955. Grimm, David (27 January 2016). "Were cats domesticated more than once?". sciencemag.org. Archived from the original on 27 January 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2016. Sample, Ian (19 June 2017). "Africats to the Purr-ymids: DNA study reveals long tale of cat domestication". theguardian.com. Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017. Ottoni, Claudio; Van Neer, Wim; De Cupere, Bea; Daligault, Julien; Guimaraes, Silvia; Peters, Joris; Spassov, Nikolai; Prendergast, Mary E.; Boivin, Nicole; Morales-Muñiz, Arturo; Bălăşescu, Adrian; Becker, Cornelia; Benecke, Norbert; Boroneant, Adina; Buitenhuis, Hijlke; Chahoud, Jwana; Crowther, Alison; Llorente, Laura; Manaseryan, Nina; Monchot, Hervé; Onar, Vedat; Osypińska, Marta; Putelat, Olivier; Quintana Morales, Eréndira M.; Studer, Jacqueline; Wierer, Ursula; Decorte, Ronny; Grange, Thierry; Geigl, Eva-Maria (2017). "The palaeogenetics of cat dispersal in the ancient world". Nature Ecology & Evolution. Nature Publishing Group. 1 (7): 0139. doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0139. ISSN 2397-334X. Thompson, Andrea. "What's the Most Popular Pet?". LiveScience. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015. "Statistics about pets in the UK" Archived 26 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. 2010, Society for Companion Animal Studies. Retrieved 15 November 2016 Johnson, Warren; O'Brien, Stephen J. (1997). "Phylogenetic Reconstruction of the Felidae Using 16S rRNA and NADH-5 Mitochondrial Genes". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 44: S98–S116. Bibcode:1997JMolE..44S..98J. doi:10.1007/PL00000060. PMID 9071018. "ITIS Standard Report Page: Felis". ITIS Online Database. Archived from the original on 19 May 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2011. Stefoff, Rebecca (November 2003). Cats. New York: Benchmark Books. p. 34. ISBN 0-7614-1577-7. Yamaguchi, N.; Kitchener, A.; Driscoll, C.; Nussberger, B. (2015). "Felis silvestris (Wildcat, Wild Cat)". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Archived from the original on 16 December 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2017. Francis, Richard C. (2015). Domesticated: Evolution in a Man-Made World. W. W. Norton & Company. House Cat Origin Traced to Middle Eastern Wildcat Ancestor Archived 31 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Brian Handwerk for National Geographic News, 28 June 2007 Driscoll, C. A.; MacDonald, D. W.; O'Brien, Stephen J. (2009). "In the Light of Evolution III: Two Centuries of Darwin Sackler Colloquium: From Wild Animals to Domestic Pets – An Evolutionary View of Domestication". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (S1): 9971–9978. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.9971D. doi:10.1073/pnas.0901586106. PMC 2702791 Freely accessible. PMID 19528637. Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Species Felis silvestris". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 536–537. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. "Opinion 2027". Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). 60. 2003. Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. MacDonald, M. L.; Rogers, Q. R.; Morris, J. G. (1984). "Nutrition of the domestic cat, a mammalian carnivore". Annual Review of Nutrition. 4: 521–562. doi:10.1146/annurev.nu.04.070184.002513. PMID 6380542. Erxleben, J. C. P. (1777). Systema regni animalis. p. 520. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library. Baron, Alan; Stewart, C. N.; Warren, J. M. (1 January 1957). "Patterns of Social Interaction in Cats (Felis domestica)". Behaviour. 11 (1): 56–66. doi:10.1163/156853956X00084. JSTOR 4532869. "Catalogue of the Specimens of Caucasian Large Mammalian Fauna in the Collection". National Museum of Georgia. Archived from the original on 21 March 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013. Johnson, Warren E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W. J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E.; O'Brien, Stephen J. (2006). "The Late Miocene Radiation of Modern Felidae: A Genetic Assessment". Science. 311 (5757): 73–77. Bibcode:2006Sci...311...73J. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID 16400146. Mattern, Michelle Y.; McLennan, Deborah A. (2000). "Phylogeny and Speciation of Felids". Cladistics. 16 (2): 232–253. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2000.tb00354.x. Masuda, R.; Lopez, J. V.; Slattery, J. P.; Yuhki,, N.; O'Brien, Stephen J. (1996). "Molecular Phylogeny of Mitochondrial Cytochrome b and 12S rRNA Sequences in the Felidae: Ocelot and Domestic Cat Lineages". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 6 (3): 351–365. doi:10.1006/mpev.1996.0085. PMID 8975691. Lipinski, Monika J.; Froenicke, Lutz; Baysac, Kathleen C.; Billings, Nicholas C.; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Levy, Alon M.; Longeri, Maria; Niini, Tirri; Ozpinar, Haydar (January 2008). "The Ascent of Cat Breeds: Genetic Evaluations of Breeds and Worldwide Random-bred Populations". Genomics. 91 (1): 12–21. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2007.10.009. PMC 2267438 Freely accessible. PMID 18060738. Cameron-Beaumont, Charlotte; Lowe, Sarah E.; Bradshaw, John W. S. (2002). "Evidence Suggesting Pre-adaptation to Domestication Throughout the Small Felidae" (PDF). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 75 (3): 361–366. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8312.2002.00028.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2009. Bradshawa, J. W. S.; Horsfield, G. F.; Allen, J. A.; Robinson, I. H. (1999). "Feral Cats: Their Role in the Population Dynamics of Felis catus". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 65 (3): 273–283. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(99)00086-6. Oliveira, R.; Godinho, R.; Randi, E.; Alves, P. C. (2008). "Hybridization Versus Conservation: Are Domestic Cats Threatening the Genetic Integrity of Wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris) in Iberian Peninsula?". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 363 (1505): 2953–2961. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0052. PMC 2606743 Freely accessible. PMID 18522917. Fogle, Bruce, ed. (1981). Interrelations Between People and Pets. Charles C. Thomas Publications. ISBN 0-398-04169-5. O'Connor, T. P. (2007). "Wild or Domestic? Biometric Variation in the Cat Felis silvestris". International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. 17 (6): 581–595. doi:10.1002/oa.913. Harper, Douglas (ed.). "cat". Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 20 September 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2009.. McKnight, George H. (1923). English Words and Their BackgroundPaid subscription required. New York: D. Appleton and Company. p. 130. Archived from the original on 5 July 2017 – via Questia. "cat". The Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 1 October 2012. Huehnergard, John. "Qitta: Arabic Cats". Classical Arabic Humanities in Their Own Terms. Savignac, Jean-Paul (2004). "chat". Dictionnaire français-gaulois. Paris: Errance. p. 82. Kroonen, Guus (2013). Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers. p. 281f. ISBN 978-90-04-18340-7. "Puss". The Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 1 October 2012. "puss". Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language. New York: Gramercy (Random House). 1996. p. 1571. "What do you call a group of ...?". Oxford Dictionaries Online. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2012. "tom cat, tom-cat". The Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 1 October 2012. "gib, n.2". The Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 1 October 2012. "queen cat". The Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 1 October 2012. "sire". The Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 1 October 2012. "Dam, n.2". The Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 1 October 2012. "catling". The Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 1 October 2012. Hartwell, Sarah (2002–2011). "Dwarf, Midget and Miniature Cats (Including 'Tea-cup' Cats)". MessyBeast.com. self-published. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2015.[self-published source] Wilson, Julia (2002–2008). "Cat World Records". Cat-World.com.au. self-published. Archived from the original on 1 August 2008. Retrieved 7 September 2012. "Feline Veterinary care by The Boston Cat Hospital/Feline Fast Cats". Boston Cat Hospital. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2013. "Domestic Cat". Animal Bytes. SeaWorld Parks and Entertainment. 2011. Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2011. This tertiary source reuses information from other sources without citing them in detail. Walker, Warren F. (1982). Study of the Cat with Reference to Human Beings (4th Revised ed.). Thomson Learning (Cengage). ISBN 0-03-057914-7. Gillis, Rick, ed. (22 July 2002). "Cat Skeleton". Zoolab. La Crosse: University of Wisconsin. Archived from the original on 6 December 2006. Retrieved 7 September 2012. *Case, Linda P. (2003). The Cat: Its Behavior, Nutrition, and Health. Ames: Iowa State University Press. ISBN 0-8138-0331-4. Smith, Patricia; Tchernov, Eitan (1992). Structure, Function and Evolution of teeth. Freund Publishing House. p. 217. ISBN 965-222-270-4. Carr, William H. A. (1 January 1978). The New Basic Book of the Cat. Scribner's. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-684-15549-4. Lacquaniti, F.; Grasso, R.; Zago, M. (1 August 1999). "Motor Patterns in Walking". News Physiol. Sci. 14 (4): 168–174. PMID 11390844. Christensen, Wendy (2004). Outwitting Cats. Globe Pequot. p. 23. ISBN 1-59228-240-7. Russell, Anthony P.; Bryant, Harold N. (2001). "Claw Retraction and Protraction in the Carnivora: The Cheetah (Acinonyx Jubatus) as an Atypical Felid". Journal of Zoology. 254 (1): 67–76. doi:10.1017/S0952836901000565. Armes, Annetta F. (22 December 1900). "Outline of Cat Lessons". The School Journal. E. L. Kellogg & Co. LXI: 659. Retrieved 12 November 2007. Danforth, C. H. (April 1947). "Heredity of polydactyly in the cat" (PDF). The Journal of Heredity. 38 (4): 107–112. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jhered.a105701. PMID 20242531. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 September 2013. Lettice, L. A.; Hill, A. E.; Devenney, P. S.; Hill, R. E. (April 2008). "Point mutations in a distant sonic hedgehog cis-regulator generate a variable regulatory output responsible for preaxial polydactyly". Human Molecular Genetics. 17 (7): 978–985. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddm370. PMID 18156157. US National Research Council Subcommittee on Dog and Cat Nutrition (2006). Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. Washington DC: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. p. 292. ISBN 0-309-08628-0. Kahn, Cynthia M.; Line, Scott (2007). Hollander, Joseph Lee, ed. The Merck/Merial Manual for Pet Health. Merck & Co. ISBN 0-911910-99-9. "How do cats sweat?". CatHealth.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014. Adams, T.; Morgan, M. L.; Hunter, W. S.; Holmes, K. R. (1970). "Temperature Regulation of the Unanesthetized Cat During Mild Cold and Severe Heat Stress". Journal of Applied Physiology. 29 (6): 852–858. PMID 5485356. US National Research Council Committee on Animal Nutrition (1986). Nutrient Requirements of Cats (2nd ed.). Washington DC: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Archived from the original on 15 August 2010. Prentiss, Phoebe G. (1959). "Hydropenia in Cat and Dog: Ability of the Cat to Meet its Water Requirements Solely from a Diet of Fish or Meat". American Journal of Physiology. 196 (3): 625–632. doi:10.1152/ajplegacy.1959.196.3.625. PMID 13627237. Wolf, A. V. (1959). "Potability of Sea Water with Special Reference to the Cat". American Journal of Physiology. 196 (3): 633–641. doi:10.1152/ajplegacy.1959.196.3.633. PMID 13627238. Fraser, Andrew F. (2012). Feline Behaviour and Welfare. Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-78064-121-8. Archived from the original on 20 February 2018. Zoran, D. L. (2002). "The Carnivore Connection to Nutrition in Cats" (PDF). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 221 (11): 1559–1567. doi:10.2460/javma.2002.221.1559. PMID 12479324. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 May 2010. Gray, C. M.; Sellon, R. K.; Freeman, L. M. (2004). "Nutritional Adequacy of Two Vegan Diets for Cats". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 225 (11): 1670–1675. doi:10.2460/javma.2004.225.1670. PMID 15626215. Zaghini, G.; Biagi, G. (2005). "Nutritional Peculiarities and Diet Palatability in the Cat". Vet. Res. Commun. 29 (Supplement 2): 39–44. doi:10.1007/s11259-005-0009-1. PMID 16244923. Tucker, Abigail; Worrall, Simon. "How Cats Clawed Their Way Into Our Hearts". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 14 November 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016. "Why Do Cats Eat Grass?". AnimalPlanet.com. Archived from the original on 3 April 2017. Retrieved 2 April 2017. Morris, J. G.; Rogers, Q. R. (1 December 1978). "Arginine: An Essential Amino Acid for the Cat". Journal of Nutrition. 108 (12): 1944–1953. PMID 722344. Bauer, J. (1998). Nutritional Uniqueness of Cats. Veterinary Quarterly,20(Sup1), 78-79. "the definition of amino acid". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 22 February 2017. Schullerlevis, G.; Mehta, P.; Rudelli, R.; Sturman, J. (1990). "Immunological Consequences of Taurine Deficiency in Cats". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 47 (4): 321–331. MacDonald, M. L.; Rogers, Q. R. (1984). "Nutrition of the domestic cat, a mammalian carnivore". Annual Review of Nutrition. 4: 521–562. doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.4.1.521. Morris, J. (2002). "Idiosyncratic nutrient requirements of cats appear to be diet-induced evolutionary adaptations". Nutrition Research Reviews. 15 (1): 153–168. doi:10.1079/nrr200238. US National Research Council Subcommittee on Dog and Cat Nutrition (2006). "The Role of Vitamins and Minerals in the Diet for Cats". Nutrient Requirements of Cats and Dogs. Washington DC: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. ISBN 0-309-08628-0. Archived from the original on 7 September 2006. "The Nutritional Requirements of the Cat". Nutrition Reviews. 40 (9): 283–285. 1982. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.1982.tb05341.x.[full citation needed] Girard, N.; Servet, E.; Hennet, P.; Biourge, V. (2010). "Tooth Resorption and Vitamin D 3 Status in Cats Fed Premium Dry Diets". Journal of Veterinary Dentistry. 27 (3): 142–147. doi:10.1177/089875641002700301. Morris, James G (1999). "Ineffective vitamin D synthesis in cats is reversed by an inhibitor of 7-dehydrocholesterol-delta(super 7)-reductase". The Journal of Nutrition. 129 (4): 903–908. doi:10.1093/jn/129.4.903. PMID 10203568. MacDonald, M. L.; Anderson, B. C.; Rogers, Q. R; Buffington, C. A. (1984). "Essential fatty acid requirements of cats: Pathology of essential fatty acid deficiency". American Journal of Veterinary Research. 45 (7): 1310–1317. Archived from the original on 20 February 2018. Ollivier, F. J.; Samuelson, D. A.; Brooks, D. E.; Lewis, P. A.; Kallberg, M. E.; Komaromy, A. M. (2004). "Comparative Morphology of the Tapetum Lucidum (among Selected Species)". Veterinary Ophthalmology. 7 (1): 11–22. doi:10.1111/j.1463-5224.2004.00318.x. PMID 14738502. Malmström, T.; Kröger, R. H. (2006). "Pupil shapes and lens optics in the eyes of terrestrial vertebrates". Journal of Experimental Biology. 209 (Pt. 1): 18–25. doi:10.1242/jeb.01959. PMID 16354774. Hammond, P.; Mouat, G. S. V. (1985). "The relationship between feline pupil size and luminance". Experimental Brain Research. 59 (3): 485–490. doi:10.1007/BF00261338. Loop, M. S.; Bruce, L. L. (1978). "Cat Color Vision: The Effect of Stimulus Size". Science. 199 (4334): 1221–1222. Bibcode:1978Sci...199.1221L. doi:10.1126/science.628838. PMID 628838. Guenther, Elke; Zrenner, Eberhart (April 1993). "The Spectral Sensitivity of Dark- and Light-adapted Cat Retinal Ganglion Cells". Journal of Neuroscience. 13 (4): 1543–1550. PMID 8463834. Archived from the original on 13 April 2011. Heffner, Rickye S. (November 2004). "Primate hearing from a mammalian perspective" (PDF). The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology. 281 (1): 1111–1122. doi:10.1002/ar.a.20117. PMID 15472899. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 September 2006. Retrieved 20 August 2009. Heffner, Henry E. (May 1998). "Auditory awareness". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 57 (3–4): 259–268. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(98)00101-4. Sunquist, Melvin E.; Sunquist, Fiona (2002). Wild Cats of the World. University of Chicago Press. p. 10. ISBN 0-226-77999-8. Blumberg, M. S. (1992). "Rodent ultrasonic short calls: locomotion, biomechanics, and communication". Journal of Comparative Psychology. 106 (4): 360–365. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.106.4.360. PMID 1451418. Heffner, Rickye S. (1985). "Hearing range of the domestic cat" (PDF). Hearing Research. 19 (1): 85–88. doi:10.1016/0378-5955(85)90100-5. PMID 4066516. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 August 2010. Retrieved 20 August 2009. Moulton, David G. (1 August 1967). "Olfaction in mammals". American Zoology. 7 (3): 421–429. doi:10.1093/icb/7.3.421. Miyazaki, M.; Yamashita, T; Suzuki, Y.; Saito, Y.; Soeta, S.; Taira, H.; Suzuki, A. (2006). "A major urinary protein of the domestic cat regulates the production of felinine, a putative pheromone precursor". Chemical Biology. 13 (10): 1071–1079. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2006.08.013. PMID 17052611. Sommerville, B. A. (1998). "Olfactory Awareness". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 57 (3–4): 269–286. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(98)00102-6. Grognet, Jeff (June 1990). "Catnip: Its uses and effects, past and present". The Canadian Veterinary Journal. 31 (6): 455–456. PMC 1480656 Freely accessible. PMID 17423611. Turner, Ramona (29 May 2007). "How does catnip work its magic on cats?". Scientific American. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Tucker, Arthur; Tucker, Sharon (1988). "Catnip and the catnip response". Economic Botany. 42 (2): 214–231. doi:10.1007/BF02858923. Schelling, Christianne. "Do Cats Have a Sense of Taste?". CatHealth.com. Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. "Why Cats Can't Taste Sweets". Petside.com. 13 March 2012. Archived from the original on 25 January 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2013. Bradshaw, John W. S. (1 July 2006). "The Evolutionary Basis for the Feeding Behavior of Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) and Cats (Felis catus)". Journal of Nutrition. 136 (7): 1927S–1931. doi:10.1093/jn/136.7.1927S. PMID 16772461. Nash, Holly. "Why Do Cats Like High Places?". PetEducation.com. Drs. Foster & Smith Inc. Archived from the original on 2 January 2008. "Falling Cats". Archived from the original on 26 October 2005. Retrieved 24 October 2005. Nguyen, Huy D. (1998). "How Does a Cat Always Land on Its Feet?". Dynamics II (ME 3760) Course Materials. School of Medical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 10 April 2001. Retrieved 15 May 2007. This tertiary source reuses information from other sources but does not name them. Kent, Marc; Platt, Simon R. (September 2010). "The neurology of balance: Function and dysfunction of the vestibular system in dogs and cats". The Veterinary Journal. 185 (3): 247–249. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.10.029. Kraft, W. (February 1998). "Geriatrics in canine and feline internal medicine". European Journal of Medical Research. 3 (1–2): 31–41. PMID 9512965. Nassar R, Mosier JE, Williams LW (February 1984). "Study of the feline and canine populations in the greater Las Vegas area". American Journal of Veterinary Research. 45 (2): 282–287. PMID 6711951. "What Is the Average Lifespan of a Cat?". The Spruce Pets. Retrieved 6 June 2018. Example: "Me-wow! Texas Woman Says Cat is 30 Years Old – Although She Can't Hear or See Very Well, Caterack the Cat Is Still Purring". MSNBC.MSN.com. New York: Microsoft. 30 September 2009. Archived from the original on 2 October 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2009. Guinness World Records (reprint ed.). Bantam Books. 2010. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-553-59337-2. The oldest cat ever was Creme Puff, who was born on August 3, 1967 and lived until August 6, 2005 – 38 years and 3 days in total. "Cat Care: Spay–Neuter". ASPCA.org. New York: American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 2011. Archived from the original on 19 May 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2011. This tertiary source reuses information from other sources but does not name them. Levy, Julie K.; Gale, David W.‌; Gale, Leslie A. (January 2003). "Evaluation of the effect of a long-term trap-neuter-return and adoption program on a free-roaming cat population". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 222 (1): 42–46. doi:10.2460/javma.2003.222.42. PMID 12523478. Levy, Julie K.; Crawford, P. Cynda (November 2004). "Humane strategies for controlling feral cat populations". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 225 (9): 1354–1360. doi:10.2460/javma.2004.225.1354. PMID 15552308. A number of the four remaining colony cats at the Parliament Hill Cat Sanctuary in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada were 15 and 16 years old in 2013. "A beloved Parliament Hill attraction uses up its nine lives" Archived 20 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Karan Smith, The Globe and Mail, 1 February 2013. J. Remfry, Feral Cats in the United Kingdom (JAVMA Vol. 208, No. 4, 15 February 1996, pp. 520–523), at p. 522, available online at pp. 24–27 of "AVMA Animal Welfare Forum: The welfare of cats" Archived 19 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine., 3 November 1995. Zorro, the last cat of a colony at the Merrimack River in Newburyport, Massachusetts, died in 2009 at age 16. "Trap-Neuter-Return Effectively Stabilizes and Reduces Feral Cat Populations: Trap-Neuter-Return Humanely Stabilized and Reduced in Size the Merrimack River Colony" Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Alley Cat Allies, accessed 18 August 2014; an earlier article in the LA Times was written when Zorro was the last remaining living cat: "Advocates report success with trap, neuter, return approach to stray cats" Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Los Angeles Times, 29 September 2009. The last cat in a managed colony in Washington, D.C. died at age 17. "Trap-Neuter-Return Effectively Stabilizes and Reduces Feral Cat Populations: Washington, D.C. Cat Colony Stabilized and Eventually Reduced to Zero" Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Alley Cat Allies, accessed 18 August 2014. Huston, Lorie (17 December 2012). "Veterinary Care for Your New Cat". PetMD. Archived from the original on 8 May 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017. Nie, W.; Wang, J.; O'Brien, P. C. (2002). "The Genome Phylogeny of Domestic Cat, Red Panda and Five Mustelid Species Revealed by Comparative Chromosome Painting and G-banding". Chromosome Research. 10 (3): 209–222. doi:10.1023/A:1015292005631. PMID 12067210. Pontius, J. U.; Mullikin, J. C.; Smith, D. R.; Agencourt Sequencing Team; NISC Comparative Sequencing Program; et al. (2007). "Initial Sequence and Comparative Analysis of the Cat Genome". Genome Research. 17 (11): 1675–1689. doi:10.1101/gr.6380007. PMC 2045150 Freely accessible. PMID 17975172. O'Brien, Stephen J.; Johnson, W.; Driscoll, C.; Pontius, J.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Menotti-Raymond, M. (2008). "State of Cat Genomics". Trends in Genetics. 24 (6): 268–279. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2008.03.004. PMID 18471926. Sewell, A. C.; Haskins, M. E.; Giger, U. (2007). "Inherited Metabolic Disease in Companion Animals: Searching for Nature's Mistakes". Veterinary Journal. 174 (2): 252–259. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.08.017. PMC 3132193 Freely accessible. PMID 17085062. O'Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, M.; Murphy, W. J.; Yuhki, N. (2002). "The Feline Genome Project". Annual Review of Genetics. 36: 657–686. doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.36.060602.145553. PMID 12359739. Germain, E.; Benhamou, S.; Poulle, M.-L. (2008). "Spatio-temporal Sharing between the European Wildcat, the Domestic Cat and their Hybrids". Journal of Zoology. 276 (2): 195–203. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2008.00479.x. Barratt, David G. (1 June 1997). "Home Range Size, Habitat Utilisation and Movement Patterns of Suburban and Farm Cats Felis catus". Ecography. 20 (3): 271–280. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0587.1997.tb00371.x. JSTOR 3682838. Randall, Walter; Johnson, R. F.; Randall, S.; Cunningham, J. T. (1985). "Circadian rhythms in food intake and activity in domestic cats". Behavioral Neuroscience. 99 (6): 1162–1175. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.99.6.1162. PMID 3843546. Jouvet, Michel (1979). "What Does a Cat Dream About?". Trends in Neurosciences. 2: 280–282. doi:10.1016/0166-2236(79)90110-3. Pontier, Dominique; Natoli, Eugenia (1996). "Male Reproductive Success in the Domestic Cat (Felis catus L.): A Case History". Behavioural Processes. 37 (1): 85–88. doi:10.1016/0376-6357(95)00070-4. Crowell-Davis, S. L.; Curtis, T. M.; Knowles, R. J. (2004). "Social Organization in the Cat: A Modern Understanding" (PDF). Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 6 (1): 19–28. doi:10.1016/j.jfms.2003.09.013. PMID 15123163. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2008. Bradshaw, J. W.; Goodwin, D.; Legrand-Defrétin, V; Nott, H. M. (1996). "Food selection by the domestic cat, an obligate carnivore". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 114 (3): 205–209. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(95)02133-7. PMID 8759144. Levine, E.; Perry, P.; Scarlett, J.; Houpt, K. (2005). "Intercat Aggression in Households Following the Introduction of a New Cat" (PDF). Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 90 (3–4): 325–336. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2004.07.006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2009. "Dogs and Cats – Getting Along". PetUniversity.com. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013. Mills, D. S.; Marchant-Forde, Jeremy (2010). Encyclopedia of Applied Animal Behaviour and Welfare. p. 518. ISBN 978-0-85199-724-7. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. "The Cat Body: Adolescence and Sexual Maturity". AnimalPlanet.com (Animal.Discovery.com). Discovery Communications. 2007. "Cat Guide" section. Archived from the original on 30 June 2008. McComb, K.; Taylor, A. M.; Wilson, C.; Charlton, B. D. (2009). "The Cry Embedded within the Purr". Current Biology. 19 (13): R507–508. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.05.033. PMID 19602409. Soennichsen, Susan; Chamove, Arnold S. (2015). "Responses of cats to petting by humans". Anthrozoos. 15 (3): 258–265. doi:10.2752/089279302786992577 – via MUN Libraries. Jensen, Per (2009). The Ethology of Domestic Animals. "Modular Text" series. Wallingford, England: Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International. ISBN 1-84593-536-5. "Cat Behavior: Body Language". AnimalPlanet.com. 2007. Archived from the original on 24 February 2009. Retrieved 7 September 2012. Cafazzo, S.; Natoli, E. (2009). "The Social Function of Tail Up in the Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus)". Behav. Processes. 80 (1): 60–66. doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2008.09.008. PMID 18930121. von Muggenthaler, Elizabeth; Wright, Bill. "Solving the Cat's Purr Mystery Using Accelerometers". BKSV.com. Brüel & Kjær. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2010. "The Cat's Remarkable Purr". ISnare.com. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2008. "Why and How Do Cats Purr?". Everyday Mysteries: Fun Science Facts from the Library of Congress. Washington DC: Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 3 April 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2011. "Panthera". Archived from the original on 26 November 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2013. Hadzima, Eva (2016). "Everything You Need to Know About Hairballs". Archived from the original on 6 October 2016. Boshel, J.; Wilborn, W. H; Singh, B. B.; Peter, S.; Stur, M. (1982). "Filiform Papillae of Cat Tongue". Acta Anatomica. 114 (2): 97–105. doi:10.1159/000145583. PMID 7180385. Lindell, Ellen M. (December 1997). "Intercat Aggression: A Retrospective Study Examining Types of Aggression, Sexes of Fighting Pairs, and Effectiveness of Treatment". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 55 (1–2): 153–162. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(97)00032-4. Yamane, Akihiro; Doi, Teruo; Ono, Yuiti (1996). "Mating Behaviors, Courtship Rank and Mating Success of Male Feral Cat (Felis catus)". Journal of Ethology. 14 (1): 35–44. doi:10.1007/BF02350090. Kustritz, Margaret V. Root (2007). "Determining the Optimal age for Gonadectomy of Dogs and Cats". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 231 (11): 1665–1675. doi:10.2460/javma.231.11.1665. PMID 18052800. "Aggression Between Family Cats". Humane Society of the United States. 2002. Archived from the original on 14 December 2004. Pedersen, N. C.; Yamamoto, J. K.; Ishida, T.; Hansen, H. (1989). "Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection". Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 21 (1): 111–129. doi:10.1016/0165-2427(89)90134-7. PMID 2549690. Understanding and Training Your Cat or Kitten. Sunstone Press. pp. 146–147. ISBN 978-1-611-39080-3. Woods, M.; McDonald, R. A.; Harris, S. (2003). "Predation of wildlife by domestic cats Felis catus in Great Britain". Mammal Review. 23 (2): 174–188. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2907.2003.00017.x. Slesnick, Irwin L. (2004). Clones, Cats, and Chemicals: Thinking Scientifically About Controversial Issues. p. 9. Hill, Dennis S. (2008). Pests of Crops in Warmer Climates and Their Control. p. 120. Loss, Scott R.; Will, Tom; Marra, Peter P. (29 January 2013). "The impact of free-ranging domestic cats on wildlife of the United States". Nature Communications. 4. Article number 1396. Bibcode:2013NatCo...4E1396L. doi:10.1038/ncomms2380. PMID 23360987. We estimate that free-ranging domestic cats kill 1.4–3.7 billion birds and 6.9–20.7 billion mammals annually. Angier, Natalie (29 January 2013). "That Cuddly Kitty Is Deadlier Than You Think". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 January 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013. Tucker, Abigail. "How Cats Evolved to Win the Internet". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016. Turner, Dennis C.; Bateson, Patrick, eds. (2000). The Domestic Cat: The Biology of its Behaviour (2nd ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-63648-5. "Why do cats play with their food?". Arizona Daily Sun. Archived from the original on 19 March 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011. Leyhausen, Paul (1978). Cat Behavior: The Predatory and Social Behavior of Domestic and Wild Cats. New York: Garland STPM Press. ISBN 978-0-8240-7017-5. Desmond, Morris (1986). Catwatching: Why Cats Purr and Everything Else You Ever Wanted to Know. Crown Publishing.[clarification needed] "Why Do Cats Bring Home Dead Animals". LiveScience.com. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2015. Kienzle, E. (1994). "Blood Sugar Levels and Renal Sugar Excretion after the Intake of High Carbohydrate Diets in Cats" (PDF). Journal of Nutrition. 124 (12 Supplement): 2563S–2567S. doi:10.1093/jn/124.suppl_12.2563S. PMID 7996238. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 September 2013. Bradshaw, John W. S. (April 1997). "Factors affecting pica in the domestic cat". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 52 (3–4): 373–379. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(96)01136-7. "Pica: The Un-finicky Feline – Chewing or Eating Cords, Fabric, Houseplants, Etc". School of Veterinary Medicine at University of California, Davis. Archived from the original on 7 September 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2009. This tertiary source reuses information from other sources but does not name them. "Scientists catch a feral cat killing a large mammal on camera 'for the first time'". ABC News. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2015. Reubel, Gerhard (November 1992). "Acute and Chronic Faucitis of Domestic Cats: A Feline Calicivirus–Induced Disease". Elsevier. 22 (6): 1347–1360. doi:10.1016/s0195-5616(92)50131-0. Retrieved 1 September 2016. Wade, Nicholas (11 November 2010). "For Cats, a Big Gulp With a Touch of the Tongue". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 November 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2010. Becker, Karen (May 22, 2015). "The Cat That Can Run Up to 30 mph: Fastest Domestic Cat Breed in the World". Mercola Healthy Pets. Joseph Mercola. Retrieved June 28, 2018. Poirier, F. E.; Hussey, L. K. (1 July 1982). "Nonhuman Primate Learning: The Importance of Learning from an Evolutionary Perspective". Anthropology and Education Quarterly. 13 (2): 133–148. doi:10.1525/aeq.1982.13.2.05x1830j. JSTOR 3216627. Byers, John A.; Bekoff, Marc (1998). Animal Play: Evolutionary, Comparative, and Ecological Perspectives. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 135. ISBN 0-521-58656-9. Hall, Sarah L. (2002). "Object Play in Adult Domestic Cats: The Roles of Habituation and Disinhibition". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 79 (3): 263–271. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(02)00153-3. Hall, Sarah L. (June 1998). "The Influence of Hunger on Object Play by Adult Domestic Cats". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 58 (1–2): 143–150. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(97)00136-6. MacPhail, Catriona (November 2002). "Gastrointestinal obstruction". Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice. 17 (4): 178–183. doi:10.1053/svms.2002.36606. PMC 2480448 Freely accessible. PMID 12587284. "Fat Indoor Cats Need Exercise". Pocono Record. 10 December 2006. Archived from the original on 14 July 2009. This tertiary source reuses information from other sources but does not name them. "Prolific Cats: The Estrous Cycle" (PDF). Veterinary Learning Systems. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 December 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2009. Aronson, L. R.; Cooper, M. L. (1967). "Penile Spines of the Domestic Cat: Their Endocrine-behavior Relations" (PDF). Anat. Rec. 157 (1): 71–78. doi:10.1002/ar.1091570111. PMID 6030760. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2015. Wildt, D. E.; Seager, S. W.; Chakraborty, P. K. (1980). "Effect of Copulatory Stimuli on Incidence of Ovulation and on Serum Luteinizing Hormone in the Cat". Endocrinology. 107 (4): 1212–1217. doi:10.1210/endo-107-4-1212. PMID 7190893. Swanson, William F.; Roth, Terri L.; Wilt, David E. (1994). "In Vivo Embryogenesis, Embryo Migration and Embryonic Mortality in the Domestic Cat" (PDF). Biology of Reproduction. 51: 452–464. doi:10.1095/biolreprod51.3.452. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 September 2015. "Cat Development – Embryology". UNSW Embryology Wiki. University of New South Wales. 6 June 2013. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2013. Tsutsui, T.; Stabenfeldt, G. H. (1993). "Biology of Ovarian Cycles, Pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the Domestic Cat". J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl. 47: 29–35. PMID 8229938. Behrend, Katrin; Wegler, Monika (1991). The Complete Book of Cat Care: How to Raise a Happy and Healthy Cat. translated from German by Elizabeth D. Crawford. Hauppauge, New York: Barron's Educational Series. p. 28. ISBN 0-8120-4613-7. Olson, P. N.; Kustritz, M. V.; Johnston, S. D. (2001). "Early-age Neutering of Dogs and Cats in the United States (A Review)". J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl. 57: 223–232. PMID 11787153. Root Kustritz, Margaret V. (2007). "Determining the optimal age for gonadectomy of dogs and cats" (PDF). Journal of American Veterinary Medicine. 231 (11): 1665–1675. doi:10.2460/javma.231.11.1665. PMID 18052800. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2010. Chu, Karyen; Anderson, W. M.; Rieser, M. Y. (2009). "Population characteristics and neuter status of cats living in households in the United States". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 234 (8): 1023–1030. doi:10.2460/javma.234.8.1023. PMID 19366332. Randerson, James (6 January 2006). "From Lion to Moggie: How Cats Climbed their Family Tree". The Guardian. London. Say, Ludovic (2002). "Spatio-temporal variation in cat population density in a sub-Antarctic environment". Polar Biology. 25 (2): 90–95. doi:10.1007/s003000100316. Frenot, Y.; Chown, Steven L.; Whinam, Jennie; Selkirk, Patricia M.; Convey, Peter; Skotnicki, Mary; Bergstrom, Dana M. (2005). "Biological Invasions in the Antarctic: Extent, Impacts and Implications". Biological Reviews. 80 (1): 45–72. doi:10.1017/S1464793104006542. PMID 15727038. Invasive Species Specialist Group (2006). "Ecology of Felis catus". Global Invasive Species Database. Species Survival Commission, International Union for Conservation of Nature. Archived from the original on 27 October 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2009. Nogales, M.; Martin, A.; Tershy, B. R.; Donlan, C. J.; Veitch, D.; Uerta, N.; Wood, B.; Alonso, J. (2004). "A Review of Feral Cat Eradication on Islands". Conservation Biology. 18 (2): 310–319. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00442.x. hdl:10261/22249. Invasive Species Specialist Group (2000). "100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species: A Selection from the Global Invasive Species Database" (PDF). IUCN Species Survival Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2009. "What is the difference between a stray cat and a feral cat?". Humane Society of the United States. Archived from the original on 1 May 2008. "Torre Argentina cat shelter". Archived from the original on 22 January 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2009. Rowan, Andrew N.; Salem, Deborah J. (November 2003). "4". The State of the Animals II: 2003 (PDF). Humane Society of the United States. ISBN 0-9658942-7-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 November 2006. "2013 AAFP Feline Vaccination Advisory Panel Report" (PDF). Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery: 9. 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 August 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017. Robertson, I. D. (1998). "Survey of Predation by Domestic Cats". Australian Veterinary Journal. 76 (8): 551–554. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1998.tb10214.x. PMID 9741724. Beckerman, A. P.; Boots, M.; Gaston, K. J. (2007). "Urban Bird Declines and the Fear of Cats" (PDF). Animal Conservation. 10 (3): 320–325. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2007.00115.x. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 March 2016. Courchamp, F.; Chapuis, J. L.; Pascal, M. (2003). "Mammal Invaders on Islands: Impact, Control and Control Impact" (PDF). Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 78 (3): 347–383. doi:10.1017/S1464793102006061. PMID 14558589. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2017. Rayner, M. J.; Hauber, M. E.; Imber, M. J.; Stamp, R. K.; Clout, M. N. (2007). "Spatial Heterogeneity of Mesopredator Release within an Oceanic Island System". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 104 (52): 20862–20865. Bibcode:2007PNAS..10420862R. doi:10.1073/pnas.0707414105. PMC 2409232 Freely accessible. PMID 18083843. Dickman, Chris R. (1996). "Overview of the Impacts of Feral Cats on Australian Native Fauna" (PDF). Australian Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 September 2007. Retrieved 28 August 2009. James, H.; Acharya, A. B.; Taylor, J. A.; Freak, M. J. (2002). "A case of bitten Bettongs". Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology. 20 (1): 10–12. PMID 12085522. Glen, A. S.; Dickman, C. R. (2005). "Complex interactions among mammalian carnivores in Australia, and their implications for wildlife management" (PDF). Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 80 (3): 387–401. doi:10.1017/S1464793105006718. PMID 16094805. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 September 2017. Liberg, O. (1982). "Food Habits and Prey Impact by Feral and House-based Domestic Cats in a Rural Area in Southern Sweden". Journal of Mammalogy. 65 (3): 424–432. doi:10.2307/1381089. JSTOR 1381089. May, R. (1988). "Control of Feline Delinquency". Nature. 332 (6163): 392–393. Bibcode:1988Natur.332..392M. doi:10.1038/332392a0. Lambert, Mark (September 2003). Control of Norway Rats in the Agricultural Environment: Alternatives to Rodenticide Use (PDF) (PhD). University of Leicester. pp. 85–103. Davis, David E. (1957). "The Use of Food as a Buffer in a Predator–Prey System". Journal of Mammalogy. 38 (4): 466. doi:10.2307/1376399. ISSN 0022-2372. JSTOR 1376399. Wodzicki, K. (1973). "Prospects for biological control of rodent populations". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 48 (4): 461–467. PMC 2481104 Freely accessible. PMID 4587482. "You thought watching cat videos was harmless fun? Think Again". The Register. Archived from the original on 3 November 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014. Chucher, P. B.; Lawton, J. H. (1987). "Predation by Domestic Cats in an English village". Journal of Zoology, London. 212 (3): 439–455. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1987.tb02915.x. Mead, C. J. (1982). "Ringed birds killed by cats". Mammal Review. 12 (4): 183–186. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.1982.tb00014.x. Crooks, Kevin R.; Soul, Michael E. (1999). "Mesopredator Release and Avifaunal Extinctions in a Fragmented System" (PDF). Nature. 400 (6744): 563–566. Bibcode:1999Natur.400..563C. doi:10.1038/23028. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 July 2011. Fitzgerald, M. B.; Turner, Dennis C. "Hunting Behaviour of Domestic Cats and Their Impact on Prey Populations". In Turner & Bateson. The Domestic Cat: The Biology of its Behaviour. pp. 151–175. Courchamp, F.; Langlais, M.; Sugihara, G. (1999). "Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect". Journal of Animal Ecology. 68 (2): 282–292. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2656.1999.00285.x. Stattersfield, A. J.; Crosby, M. J.; Long, A. J.; Wege, D. C. (1998). Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. "BirdLife Conservation Series" No. 7. Cambridge, England: Burlington Press. ISBN 0-946888-33-7. Williams, A. J. (1984). "Status and Conservation of Seabirds at some Islands in the African Sector of the Southern Ocean". In Croxall, J. P.; Evans, P. G. H.; Schreiber, R. W. Status and Conservation of the World's Seabirds. Cambridge, England: International Council for Bird Preservation. pp. 627–635. Falla, R. A. (1955). New Zealand Bird Life Past and Present. Cawthron Institute.[page needed] Galbreath, R.; Brown, D. (2004). "The Tale of the Lighthouse-keeper's Cat: Discovery and Extinction of the Stephens Island Wren (Traversia lyalli)" (PDF). Notornis. 51: 193–200. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2008. Retrieved 14 December 2011. Dowding, J. E.; Murphy, E. C. (2001). "The Impact of Predation be Introduced Mammals on Endemic Shorebirds in New Zealand: A Conservation Perspective". Biological Conservation. 99: 47–64. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00187-7. Whiting, M. F.; Bradler,, S.; Maxwell,, T. (2003). "Loss and Recovery of Wings in Stick Insects". Nature. 421 (6920): 264–267. Bibcode:2003Natur.421..264W. doi:10.1038/nature01313. PMID 12529642. World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1992). Groombridge, Brian, ed. Global Biodiversity: Status of the Earth's Living Resources. Chapman & Hall. ISBN 0-412-47240-6. Steadman, D. W.; Martin, P. S. (2003). "The Late Quaternary Extinction and Future Resurrection of Birds on Pacific Islands". Earth Science Reviews. 61: 133–147. Bibcode:2003ESRv...61..133S. doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00116-2. Ellin, Abby (5 October 2008). "More Men Are Unabashedly Embracing Their Love of Cats". New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2009. Jones, Jeffrey M. (30 November 2007). "Companionship and Love of Animals Drive Pet Ownership". Gallup Inc. Archived from the original on 25 July 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2009. "What Is That They're Wearing?" (PDF). Humane Society of the United States. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 December 2006. Retrieved 22 October 2009. Stallwood, Kim W., ed. (2002). A Primer on Animal Rights: Leading Experts Write about Animal Cruelty and Exploitation. Lantern Books. "Japan: Finale for the world's most elegant use of a dead cat". The Independent. 15 November 1997. Archived from the original on 21 June 2017. "EU proposes cat and dog fur ban". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 20 November 2006. Archived from the original on 2 January 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2009. Ikuma, Carly (27 June 2007). "EU Announces Strict Ban on Dog and Cat Fur Imports and Exports". HSUS.org. Humane Society International. Archived from the original on 17 February 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2011. Witchcraft and Magic in Europe, Volume 3: The Middle Ages. Karen Jolly, A&C Black, 2002 Paterson, Tony (25 April 2008). "Switzerland Finds a Way to Skin a Cat for the Fur Trade and High Fashion". The Independent. London, England. Archived from the original on 7 July 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2009. "Humane society launches national cat census". CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012. "Cats Be". Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012. "The Supreme Cat Census". Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012. "About Pets". IFAHEurope.org. Animal Health Europe. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014. Legay, J. M. (1986). "Sur une tentative d'estimation du nombre total de chats domestiques dans le monde" [Tentative estimation of the total number of domestic cats in the world]. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série III (in French). 303 (17): 709–712. PMID 3101986. INIST:7950138. "Cats: Most interesting facts about common domestic pets". Pravda. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014. "Study Traces Cat's Ancestry to Middle East". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2014. Gehrt, Stanley D.; Riley, Seth P. D.; Cypher, Brian L. (12 March 2010). Urban Carnivores: Ecology, Conflict, and Conservation. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801893896. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2014. Rochlitz, Irene (17 April 2007). The Welfare of Cats. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781402032271. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2014. "All About Cat Shows". HowStuffWorks. 2008-04-02. Retrieved 2018-06-08. "All About Cat Shows". HowStuffWorks. 2008-04-02. Retrieved 2018-06-08. "All About Cat Shows". HowStuffWorks. 2008-04-02. Retrieved 2018-06-26. "cat café". Cambridge English Dictionary. Retrieved 6 June 2018. Bartleby: Ailurophobes and Other Cat-Haters Archived 23 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine. "First Aid: Animal Bites". Nemours Foundation. 2017. Archived from the original on 18 May 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017. "Animal Bites". HandCare.org. American Society for Surgery of the Hand. 2017. Archived from the original on 28 July 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017. Chomel, Bruno (2014). "Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats". Animals. 4 (3): 434–445. doi:10.3390/ani4030434. ISSN 2076-2615. PMC 4494318 Freely accessible. PMID 26480316. "Cats". Ohio Department of Health. 21 January 2015. Archived from the original on 27 November 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2016. Stull, J. W.; Brophy, J.; Weese, J. S. (2015). "Reducing the risk of pet-associated zoonotic infections". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 187 (10): 736–743. doi:10.1503/cmaj.141020. ISSN 0820-3946. PMC 4500695 Freely accessible. PMID 25897046. Clutton-Brock, Juliet (1999) [1987]. A Natural History of Domesticated Mammals (2nd ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 138. ISBN 0-521-63495-4. Muir, Hazel (8 April 2004). "Ancient Remains Could Be Oldest Pet Cat". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 23 November 2007. Walton, Marsha (9 April 2004). "Ancient Burial Looks Like Human and Pet Cat". CNN.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2007. Retrieved 23 November 2007. "Gatos fueron domesticados en China hace 5.300 años". La Nación (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 1 July 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014. Mason, I. L. (1984). Evolution of Domesticated Animals. Prentice Hall Press. ISBN 0-582-46046-8. Mark, Joshua J. (17 February 2012). "Cats in the Ancient World". Ancient.eu. Ancient History Encyclopedia Ltd. Archived from the original on 2 January 2018. Engels, Donald W. (2001) [1999]. Classical Cats: The Rise and Fall of the Sacred Cat. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26162-7. Rogers, Katherine M. (2006). Cat. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 18–20. ISBN 978-1-86189-292-8. Beadle, Muriel (1977). Cat. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 76. ISBN 978-0671224516. Pate, Alan (2008). "Maneki Neko: Feline Fact & Fiction". Daruma Magazine. Amagasaki, Japan: Takeguchi Momoko. Archived from the original on 30 December 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2012. Faulkes, Anthony (1995). Edda. p. 24. ISBN 0-460-87616-3. Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews, Vol. I: The Sixth Day (PDF). Translated by Szold, Henrietta. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. Geyer, Georgie Anne (2004). When Cats Reigned Like Kings: On the Trail of the Sacred Cats. Kansas City, Missouri: Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 0-7407-4697-9. Reeves, Minou (2000). Muhammad in Europe. New York University Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-8147-7533-0. Al-Thahabi, Shamsuddin. "Biography of al-Rifai". سير أعلام النبلاء (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 25 October 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014. "Abu Hurairah and Cats". Pictures-of-Cats.org. 13 January 2015. "Are Black Cats Really Bad Luck? [Hoax]". SocialNewsDaily.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015. Davies, Norman (1996). Europe: A History. Oxford University Press. p. 543. ISBN 0-198-20171-0. Frazer, Sir James George. The Golden Bough, (1922). Online version. Archived 8 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Sugobono, Nora (7 March 2010). "Las vidas del gato". El Comercio (in Spanish). Lima, Peru. Archived from the original on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2010. "Qual é a origem da lenda de que os gatos teriam sete vidas?". Mundo Estranho (in Portuguese). São Paulo, Brazil: Abril Media. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2015. Dowling, Tim (19 March 2010). "Tall tails: Pet myths busted". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2010. "The ASPCA Warns About High-Rise Falls by Cats: High-Rise Apartments, Windows, Terraces and Fire Escapes Pose Risk to Urban Cats". New York: American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 30 June 2005. Archived from the original on 22 May 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2018 – via About.com. (Press release.) External links Listen to this article (3 parts) · (info) Part 1 • Part 2 • Part 3
This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Cat" dated 2007-05-13, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles The dictionary definition of cat at Wiktionary Data related to Cat at Wikispecies Media related to Cat at Wikimedia Commons Animal Care at Wikibooks Quotations related to Cat at Wikiquote Wikisource-logo.svg "Cat, Domestic, The". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. High-Resolution Images of the Cat Brain Biodiversity Heritage Library bibliography for Felis catus Catpert. The Cat Expert – Cat articles View the cat genome in Ensembl vte Domestic cats Felinology Anatomy Genetics Dwarf cat Kitten Odd-eyed cat Squitten Coat genetics Bicolor cat Black cat Calico cat Tabby cat Tortoiseshell cat Health Aging Declawing Diet dental health senior Neutering Spaying Vaccination Behavior Body language Catfight Catnip Communication Meow Purr Kneading Intelligence Play and toys Righting reflex Senses Human–cat interaction Ailurophobia Animal-assisted therapy Cat cafés Cat massage Cat meat Cat-scratch disease Cat show Cats in ancient Egypt Cultural depictions Farm cat Feral cat Cats and Islam Puppy cat Ship's cat Zoonosis Registries American Cat Fanciers Association Associazione Nazionale Felina Italiana Canadian Cat Association Cat Aficionado Association Cat Fanciers' Association Fédération Internationale Féline Governing Council of the Cat Fancy Southern Africa Cat Council The International Cat Association World Cat Congress World Cat Federation Breeds (full list) (experimental breeds) Fully domestic Abyssinian American Curl American Shorthair Balinese Brazilian Shorthair British Shorthair Birman Bombay Burmese California Spangled Chartreux Chinese Li Hua Colorpoint Shorthair Cornish Rex Cymric Devon Rex Donskoy Egyptian Mau European Shorthair Exotic Shorthair German Rex Himalayan Japanese Bobtail Javanese Khao Manee Korat Kurilian Bobtail Maine Coon Manx Munchkin Norwegian Forest Ocicat Oriental Shorthair Persian Peterbald Pixie-bob Raas Ragdoll Ragamuffin Russian Blue Scottish Fold Selkirk Rex Siamese Siberian Singapura Snowshoe Somali Sphynx Thai Traditional Persian Tonkinese Toyger Turkish Angora Turkish Van Hybrid Bengal Chausie Highlander Savannah Serengeti Landraces Aegean Cyprus Domestic long-haired Domestic short-haired Kellas Sokoke Van Diseases and disorders Acne Asthma Calicivirus Congenital sensorineural deafness Flea Heartworm Hepatic lipidosis Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Immunodeficiency virus Infectious peritonitis Leukemia virus Lower urinary tract disease Panleukopenia Polydactyly Rabies Ringworm Roundworm Skin disorders Tick Toxoplasmosis Viral rhinotracheitis Wikipedia book Book Category Category Portal Portal vte Extant Carnivora species Taxon identifiers Wikidata: Q20980826 EoL: 4443860 EPPO: FELIDO Fossilworks: 104159 GBIF: 2435035 iNaturalist: 118552 IRMNG: 10196305 ITIS: 183798 MSW: 14000031 NBN: NHMSYS0000080189 NCBI: 9685 NZOR: 7d7d7c68-baa8-4908-bdc4-b747950f6318 Authority control GND: 4030046-8 HDS: 41559 NARA: 10647397 Categories: Domesticated animalsArticles with text from the Nubian languages collectiveCatsMammals described in 1758Cosmopolitan vertebratesInvasive mammal speciesVertebrate animal modelsCat diseases Navigation menu Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog inArticleTalkReadView sourceView historySearch
Search Wikipedia Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikipedia store Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Wikidata item Cite this page Print/export Create a book Download as PDF Printable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies Wikiquote
Languages Deutsch Español Français 한국어 Italiano Русский Tagalog Tiếng Việt 中文 211 more Edit links This page was last edited on 12 July 2018, at 23:58 (UTC). Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimersContact WikipediaDevelopersCookie statementMobile view
submitted by Chtorrr to Chtorrr [link] [comments]


2017.06.26 02:43 WeimarRepublic Happening in Indiana: June 26th - July 2nd

All my information comes from VisitIndiana so the list is not 100% comprehensive. Please add any events you are aware of, and also please share your experiences at these events and encourage others to go out!
This Week Only
Northwest Indiana
Cedar Lake Summerfest: June 30th - July 4th at Cedar Lake Town Complex. Enjoy activites for all ages on the shore of Cedar Lake when the town complex transforms into 18 acres of fun featuring: Live Entertainment, Fireworks, Midway Games, Amusement Rides, Bingo Tent, Beer Garden, Boat Parade, R C Racing, New free Car Show ... and much more! Don't forget the food! Elephant Ears, Funnel Cakes, Corn Dogs, Steak Dinners, Pancake & Sausage Breakfast, and over a dozen other tasty treats! Merchandise & Crafts
Big Family Game Night: 8-9PM June 27th at the Thomas Centennial Park Gazebo. Meet outside near the Thomas Park gazebo for a variety of lawn games for the whole family. They will have giant versions of Chutes and Ladders, Dominoes, Memory, Chess and more!
Fireworks on the Lakefront: 6PM June 29th at Indiana Dunes State Park. Family-friendly events features food merchants, a live rock concert and fireworks. Bus transfers will be available at Yost Elementary School and Chesterton Middle School to Porter Beach. Transfers will begin at 5:00 p.m. (CT) and continue until 7:30 p.m. The transfers will begin leaving Porter Beach following the end of the fireworks. In case of rain on the 29th, the rain date will be July 5th.
Beach Fun Friday: June 30th at West Beach. Beach Day at West Beach! Activities such as kayaking, SUP's, a sunset hike, and a beach campfire. Bring a picnic dinner and eat at a picnic shelter
Independence Day Holiday Concert: 7-8PM July 2nd at West Beach. Celebrate our independence with a concert on the beach. Bring blankets or lawn chairs and enjoy a concert by a U.S. Army Band.
Broad Street Blues and BBQ Festival: June 30th - July 2nd at Central Park. Griffith Blues and BBQ Festival features some of the best BBQ in one place accompanied with non-stop music in a family friendly atmosphere in spacious Central Park. There will be a wide selection of beer and wine including all three Griffith craft breweries. New this year will be a BBQ cook off at 3pm on Saturday with special guests former Chicago Bears Dan Hampton and Steve McMichael and 93WXRT on-air personality Emma Mac as judges
4th of July at the Hesston Steam Museum: 12-5PM at Hesston Steam Museum. 4th of July weekend is America's holiday. Spend it with machines that built this great country and climb aboard all 3 of our steam powered railroads for a scenic ride through our woods.
The Big Parade: 11AM July 1st at 2500 Franklin St. The 59th Annual Big Parade will start at Arthur and Franklin St and run north to Detroit St
Arts in the Park Camp at National Lakeshore: 11AM-2PM June 26-30 at the Douglas Center. During the week, there will be various nature art projects including sand casting, weaving, macrame, jewelry, and watercolors. All artists will be able to take home their masterpieces. Children must be accompanied by an adult and be at least four years old. Pre-register is required form this free camp by calling 219-395-1882.
Mount Baldy Sunset Hike: 730-9PM July 1st at Indiana Dunes Visitor Center. Watching the sunset over Lake Michigan from the top of Mount Baldy is fantastic. You must pre-register for this tour by calling 219-395-1882.
Lightning Bug Music Festival: 12PM July 2nd at the Sunset Hill Farm County Park. Lightning Bug Music Festival is a family-friendly event. It is a celebration for music lovers. Lighting Bug also features regional craft beer and wine, kids' program area and a food truck village serving up fresh, local fare. Headlined by 2015 Grammy winner Jerry Douglas presented The Earls of Leicester, artists were selected to please the whole family in the hope that everyone will be dancing. laughing, and making memories together.
North East Indiana
The Great Race: 4PM June 28th at the Auburn Cord Dusenbergy Automobile Museum. "In the early days of the automotive industry, it was Indiana and not Detroit or Michigan that led the way." “There were more car companies in Indiana than any other. And no town was better known than Auburn for turning out those cars. The Auburn, Cord and Duesenberg automobiles were built there and the Great Race will stop in Auburn, Indiana at the ACD Museum, which houses the finest collection of those marques in the world. They also highlight other automobiles manufactured in the state.” - the Great Race. It has been more than 20 years since the Great Race stopped at the Auburn Cord Duesenberg Automobile Museum, so it will be a special treat for everyone.
Central Indiana
Delphi Canal Days: July 1-2 at the Wabash and Erie Canal Park. Visit the Village and Artisans, Blacksmith, Carpenter, Broom maker, Weavers, Paper Maker, One room school, and the Cooper. Visit with Reed Case in his restored home, or take a ride on the canal boat "the Delphi". See the flag display in the Interpretive Center , or go through the award winning Museum. Take a short stroll or drive down to the Depo. New this year we will have an oxen team, as well as a fur trapper. Go to Red Bridge Settlement. Don't forget the French family will be in the " Summer Kitchen" with great food.
The Great Race: 430-10PM June 27th at Courthouse Square. The Great Race, which features cool cars driving from Traverse City, Michigan to Jacksonville, Florida, stops in Franklin at 4:30 p.m. Come see the cars and enjoy festivities.
Phillips 66 National Championships & World Championships Trial: June 27 - July 1 at the Indiana University Natatorium. Put on by USA Swimming
Haynes-Apperson Festival: June 29 - July 1st at Foster Park in Downtown Kokomo. Join us as we celebrate Kokomo's automotive heritage with fun, food, fireworks, parade, car shows, multiple concerts, carnival rides & games, vendors, sports festival, and fantastic entertainment. Parade through Downtown held on Saturday, July 1st starting at 2:00 p.m & Fireworks on July 1st at dark. Admission is free and all concerts are free! Concert headliners include Blues Traveler with opening act Jason Skaggs Band (Friday night) and Grand Funk Railroad with opening act Rogers Ritual (Saturday night.) Visit website for a complete schedule of activities!
Tuesday On The Trail - Nature Walk: 6-7PM June 27th at the Haan Mansion Museum of Indiana Art. Get a closer look at nature as a guide leads you on an educational walk along our Nature Trail. A different topic is discussed and explored each month.
Drum Corps International: 7-9PM June 30th at Scheumann Stadium at Ball State University. Drum Corps International will celebrate its 45th anniversary during the summer of 2017, as the world's most elite marching music ensembles entertain thousands in football stadiums across the United States.
Cruise-In: Honoring All Veteran Owned Vehicles: 5-10PM July 1st at Baker Park. Veteran's ceremony begins at 5:00 p.m. We honor and feature all veteran owned vehicles. Bring the family and thank our veterans for the wonderful freedoms we have.
A Little Night Jazz Music: 7PM June 29th at Ricker's Estate. Now in its 10th year hosted at Jay and Nancy Ricker’s home in Pendleton, the Campbell Jazz Continuum features siblings Alyssa, Emma and Trey along with their jazz pianist dad, Russ. The group’s unique blend of vocals, violin, cello, piano and bass provide a fresh twist on beloved jazz standards, their own original tunes and new arrangements of pop favorites. Grab your lawn chair, picnic and drinks for an evening under the stars.
Richmond Shakespeare Festival: June 16th - July 1st at the Star-Gennett Building. The Shakespeare Festival features The Merry Wives of Windsor and Cymbeline. These fresh, accessible, and relevant performances are designed and produced by our signature blend of highly-skilled professionals and volunteers. The Festival is presented in the historic Starr-Gennett Building, in the beautiful Whitewater Gorge Park.
Southern Indiana
Limestone Heritage Festival: June 30th - July 1st at Downtown Bedford. Celebrate 4th of July with a BBQ cook-off contest, parade, food, vendors, entertainment, and fireworks.
Thunder Over Patoka: July 1st at Patoka Lake Marina. Annual Independence Day fireworks celebration on the beach of Patoka Lake. View a spectacular fireworks display at Patoka Beach on Friday, July 1, 2017, beginning at 9:00 pm. This annual fireworks display is put on by Aerial Arts Fireworks and presented by the PLAY organization. An entrance fee of $5 per Indiana vehicles and $7 for out-of-state vehicles is required for access to the Newton Stewart State Reaction Area, Patoka Reservoir, located north of Wickliffe, Indiana, on Highway 164.
Independence Day Weekend at O’Bannon Woods State Park: 10AM-3PM July 1-2 at O'Bannon Woods State Park. “Independence Day Weekend on the Farm,” featuring an 1850s hay press demonstration, will be offered at O’Bannon Woods State Park. The family-friendly event takes place at the Hickory Hollow Nature Center in the state park, which is west of Corydon. The main feature is a demonstration of the nationally unique 1850 hay press, which is run by Forest and Gump, the park’s short-horned oxen. The hay press demo is at 1 p.m. Attendees will be able to meet, greet and get their photo taken with the oxen. The park’s Living Pioneer Farmstead features a working blacksmith shop, pioneer homestead, tomahawk throwing and a variety of pioneer demonstrations. Hours: 10:00 a.m. – 3:00 p.m. Saturday and Sunday Gate fees of $7 in state, or $9 out of state apply
The Great Race: 12PM June 27th at Downtown French Lick. The Great Race is a timed, navigation, controlled speed, endurance race. It is conducted on public roads with all specified speeds at or below the speed limits. The objective of the race is to match the precise time allowed for each section of the race by the rally master. The Great Race is designed for the enjoyment of the race participants and the spectators along the route. The race offers classic, vintage and antique car and rally enthusiasts an opportunity to engage in a competitive rally while enjoying their cars. As they make their way from Jacksonville, FL to Traverse City, MI, the Great Race will be making a pit stop for lunch in downtown French Lick! Don't miss the chance to see well over 150 classic, antique cars!
Wild West Hold Up: July 1-4 at French Lick Scenic Railway. The bandits known as the Lost River Renegades strike again on the French Lick Express. Local marshals are lookin' for brave souls to climb aboard the next train ride to help catch the scoundrels.
Linton Freedom Festival: 6-11PM July 1-8 at Humphreys Park. Host to Indiana's largest Independence Day parade on July 4 at 10AM. Week long festivities include great tenderloin sandwiches, entertainment, car show, flea market, carnival, fireworks. Times vary daily. Check our website for the complete event schedule. Spend your July 4 with us!
Madison Regatta: June 30th - July 2nd at Madison Heritage Trail. Annual running of the World’s fastest Race Boats - racing deck-to-deck at over 200 miles per hour! The weekend includes a Fireworks display, music, Vintage boat exhibitions, Limited boat Class Racing, food and much more!
Newburgh Fireworks and Evening in the Park: 5-930PM July 1st at Old Lock and Dam Park. 2017 Fireworks and Evening in the Park: is Saturday July 1st. At 5 pm the streets close and the games begin. It is an old fashion summer social with food, games and music. What makes it special is the location at the Old Lock and Dam Park which is on the banks of the Ohio River. The Fireworks begin at 9 pm—it’s one of the most spectacular fireworks displays in area! Free.
Ripley County Chamber Night Out/Fireworks: 4-10PM June 30th at Ripley County Fairgrounds. Crafts, food booths, live music, fireworks
Pekin's Fourth of July Celebration: July 1-4 at Pekin Park and Town Area. The Pekin, Indiana Fourth of July Celebration has deep roots dating back to 1830. Proudly claiming the "Oldest Consecutive Fourth of July Celebration in the United States," Pekin's Fourth truly captures the patriotic celebrations of the past. The 2017 celebration will mark the 187th event for the town complete with fireworks, a parade, carnival, a variety of live entertainment, a prince and princess contest, queen contest, food vendors, flea market and other activities providing something for everyone.
Abraham Lincoln Freedom Festival: July 1st at Rockport City Park. Enjoy food, fireworks, a car show, live music, and a parade during the Abraham Lincoln Freedom Festival at Rockport City Park
ONGOING EVENTS
Northwest Indiana
  • Beverly Shores
Beginning Birding Program: 9-1030AM Saturdays through July 29th at the Great Marsh Trail parking lot. Join a ranger and fellow birding enthusiasts every Saturday morning. No birding experience is required. A spotting scope and binoculars will be provided. The program will start at the southern gravel parking lot followed by a short hike to the Great Marsh observation deck to look for herons, egrets, ducks and other birds of the marsh. If you arrive late, simply hike to the observation deck to join the vent. The hike will be offered every Saturday in July.
  • Chesterton
Chesterton's European Market: Every Saturday from 10AM - 2PM until October 28th on Third Street and Broadway in Downtown Chesterton. An outdoor family/artisanal market
  • Hebron
Pav's Summer Car Nites - Every Tuesday evening through the summer. Variety of rides, good food and music at Pav's Restaurant
Suzy's Diner Cruise Night - Every Wednesday, April to October, 4-8 p.m at Suzy's Diner. Enjoy cool cars, music and a special discount at the diner
  • Michigan City
Pinhook Bog Open House: 12-3PM Saturdays July 1-29 at Pinhook Bog. Take a self-guided hike into the amazing Pinhook Bog at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Rangers and volunteers stationed along the trail will help you understand this unique rem ant of the last ice age that is filled with carnivorous plants, orchids and many other interesting plants. Please allow about one hour to walk the trail and tour the quaking bog. This hike will be offered every Saturday in July.
  • Miller
Miller Woods Hike: 130-330PM Sundays July 2-30 at Miller Woods. Join a ranger for a hike through Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore;s beautiful Miller Woods. The hike starts at the National Lakeshore's Paul H. Douglas center and travels though varied habitats including rare and beautiful black oak savanna and offers incredible views of Lake Michigan and Chicago. These hikes will be offered every Sunday in July.
  • Munster
Sunday Market in the Park: 8AM-2PM every Sunday through October at Centennial Park Clubhouse. Produce, plants, home-made jams and jellies, baked goods, cheese, food vendors, drinks, local crafts and artwork, jewelry, clothing, bath and beauty products, direct sales businesses and more! Live Music every other week beginning May 14
  • Portage
Portage Cruise-in: Every Tuesday evening throughout the summer. Variety of rides, good food and music at Woodland Park
Portage Community Market: 11AM-3PM every Sunday until September 11th at Founders Square Park. More than 30 vendors will participate in the Portage Community Market. There will be locally grown produce, flowers, popcorn, honey, bread, barbecue, handmade crafts and much more.
Portage Summer Music in the Park: Every Tuesday evening throughout the summer. All concerts will be held indoors at either Sycamore Hall or Oakwood Grand Hall in Woodland Park. Featuring Music ranges from 40s to 50s, rock & roll, swing, blues, contemporary and all featuring local talent.
  • Porter
Bailly Cemetery Hike & Bailly/Chellberg Open House: 12-130PM Sundays July 2-30 at Bailly Homestead & Chellberg Farm. Join rangers for an afternoon exploring two of our historic homesteads. Meet at Noon in the Bailly/Chellberg parking lot for an informative 90-minute hoe to the Bailly Cemetery. Upon returning, explore the interiors of the Chellberg Farmhouse and the historic Bailly Homestead from 1:30 - 4:00 p.m. Learn about early settlers and famers who came to this region in the1800s. You can also see the farm animals who have recently returned to the Chellberg farm. The hike will be offered every Sunday in July
Mount Baldy Hike: 10-1130AM Sundays July 2-30 at Indiana Dunes Visitor Center. Join a ranger for a special guided morning hike along a trail on the western edge to the top of famous Mount Baldy. Even though the area is closed for general public access, this ranger-led tour allows visitors to experience the beauty and spectacular views from the tallest dune in the national lakeshore. This hike will be offered every Sunday in July. You must pre-register for the tour by calling 219-395-1882.
  • Valparaiso
Summer Outdoor Movies: 7:30PM Tuesdays in June at Central Park Plaza. Watch your favorite movies under the beautiful night sky. Bring lawn chairs or a blanket
Summer Rhapsody Music Festival: Thursday nights until August 31 at The Porter Health Amphitheatre in Central Park Plaza. For all of the music lovers out there, come out and enjoy the sounds of the season with the Summer Rhapsody Music Festival. This concert showcase features many artists – each with their own unique style and sound. Select Thursday nights in the summer, concertgoers of all ages will enjoy a feast of different sounds underneath the beautiful night sky at The Porter Health Amphitheater in Central Park Plaza. Whether it’s a rock n’ roll band of yesteryear, an easy-going Motown group, or the elegant sounds that only a symphony orchestra can create, there’s something for everybody at this music festival. Bring your picnic, your blanket or chairs, and of course, your music-loving family and friends, and come relax in the park with the sounds of the Summer Rhapsody Music Festival.
Valparaiso Market: Every Tuesday and Saturday throughout the summer from 11AM-1PM. Fresh produce, handmade crafts, flowers, and live entertainment.
Taltree Railway Garden: Open from April 1st through October 31st. Featuring dwarf plants and model steam engine trains, the exhibit showcases the impact steam engine trains had on early 19th century U.S. railroads
North East Indiana
  • Auburn
You Had Me at Merlot Walking Wine Barrel Art Tour: All summer in Downtown Auburn. Walk the beautiful tree lined streets of Historic Downtown Auburn and enjoy 20 Wooden Wine Barrels transformed into unique works of art by local and regional artists. This outdoor walking tour exhibit is juried with awards and art auction held each year at the end of summer. This annual exhibit has included many different art objects over the past eight years, from giant paintings on easels to garden benches. This year's exhibit celebrates the many wineries of this area with its wooden wine barrels. Walking Tour maps are available at no cost in most downtown businesses
  • Fort Wayne
Rock the Plaza: Free concert series put on by the Allen County Public Library each Saturday evening throughout the summer
  • Middlebury
Essenhaus Classic Car Cruise-In: Every Thursday throughout summer at Grounds of Das Dutchman Essenhaus. A weekly classic car cruise-in with no participation or entry fee. Participants will also enjoy door prize giveaways, coupons for shopping and dining as well as 50’s-style music. Most evenings, hand dipped ice cream and live entertainment will be provided.
  • Shipshewana
Midwest's Largest Flea Market: 8AM-5PM every Tuesday and Wednesday until October. Same venue as the Shipshewana Auction
Shipshewana Trading Place Auction: 9AM every Wednesday all year. This auction features up to 10 auctioneers selling a variety of antiques and misc. items beginning with the auction bell at 9 am. Visitors tell us there is no other experience quite like it. With a variety of food choices on site, including our Auction Restaurant, featuring Amish home-style cooking and the best pie in town, you can easily spend the entire day shopping, relaxing and enjoying the sights & sounds without having to leave our grounds.
  • Warsaw
Lake City Skiers Water Ski Show: 6:30-7:30PM every Sunday and Tuesday at Hidden Lake. The shows are a themed production including music and costumes with an announcer to guide you through the action. You will see Extreme jump acts, An all girl Ballet line, Barefoot water skiing, Swivel skiing, doubles routines and human pyramids just to name a few. The show last about 1 hour followed by a meet and greet with the skiers. The Lake City Skiers have been providing fun family entertainment since 1989 and are Indiana's only competitive show ski team holding 4 National Championships in 2006, 2007, 2014, and 2016.
Central Indiana
  • Connersville
Fayette County Farmers' Market: Saturdays 9AM-12PM until October 7th. Local vendors from Fayette and surrounding counties offer farm fresh fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs, cheese, baked goods, herbs, plant stock and seeds, high quality crafts including paintings, pottery, sculptures, alpaca fiber items, goat milk soaps, jewelry, photography and so much more. Local artists, performers, and musicians highlighted as regularly scheduled entertainment. Now accepting SNAP/EBT, SenioWIC Farmers' Market Vouchers, several vendors accept debit/credit cards.
  • Fishers
Kroger Symphony on the Prairie: Every weekend at Conner Prairie. The Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra's summer series provides music from classical, pop, and rock genres from mid-June through Labor Day weekend.
Saxony Market: 8AM-12PM Saturdays at Saxony Market. SAXONY MARKET is proud to provide a home for some of Central Indiana’s finest local vendors selling these fine products: fresh produce, Indiana sweet corn, homemade baked goods, floral and gardening supplies, savory herbs, crafted jewelry, authentic home cooked cuisine, sweet treats, handmade bath products and much more!
  • Indianapolis
Groovin' In The Garden: 2-5PM every Saturday until September 30th at the Easley Winery. We offer daily wine specials, cool tunes from the best musical acts of the greater Indianapolis area, and an experience you won't soon forget. Feel free to bring along your favorite foods or order from local restaurants to have delivered here to the winery, and don't forget to bring a chair!
  • Muncie
National Aeromodeling Championships: July 1-31 at the Academy of Model Aeronautics. The National Aeromodeling Championships are back and bigger than ever! Thousands of pilots from across the national will meet in Muncie, IN for the nation’s largest model competitions. Come see what the talk is all about and see a competition for yourself! Visit nats.modelaircraft.org for a full schedule of the events. And while you’re here stop in our world-class National Model Aviation Museum. All the fun happens at the International Aeromodeling Center, right off the Muncie bi-pass on East Memorial Drive.
Southern Indiana
  • Bloomington
Bloomington Community Farmers' Market: 8AM-12PM Saturdays at Showers Common.
  • French Lick
Elephant Retreat and Giraffe Encounter at Wilstem Ranch: All summer long. An African elephant herd of three girls will be retreating at Wilstem Ranch, only 7 miles from French Lick. The three elephants that retreat at Wilstem Ranch each year are retired from making appearances in parades, circus acts and more. But as they age, even elephants need retreats, and they're coming to town for a vacation! This one of a kind up-close encounter is a rare and wonderful opportunity to learn more about these amazing creatures and connect with them in a tranquil environment
  • Newburgh
Newburgh Farmers Market: Saturdays 8AM-12PM through September 30th. At the Newburgh Farmer’s Market you will find the very best seasonal produce complemented by products like honey, grass fed meats, dairy products, flowers, cheese, breads, and pastries. There are also crafts, art, plants, flowers, & honey along with live music to complete the festival atmosphere. Free. Special event weekends include: Kids Day and Dog Days of Summer.
submitted by WeimarRepublic to Indiana [link] [comments]